1865- AlfredPsychiatrist and psychologist1870- 1937Adler worked with Freud
1865- 1939Sigmund Freud is the founder of modern psychoanalysis. His earlier research led him to figure out that the mind was divided into two parts- the concious mind and the uncontious mind. He also believed that in order to unlock the uncontious mind you would do so through hypnosis. He also believed that the uncontious mind speaks through dreams.
He found that there are three elements to the human mind, the id, which is the pleasure seeking part, the ego, which is the part that urges us to use positive and thoughtful actions, and the superego, which referees between the id and the ego. He was also one of the most important thinkers of the 20th century.Adler, AlfredPsychiatrist and psychologist1870- 1937Adler worked with Freud from 1902 to 1911. He developed a system of therapy called individual psychology. Adler believed that a persons goals and values is what guided them.Adler later on introduced the concept of the inferiority complex.
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He believed that everyone once in their life feels inferior, espically children.He also said the people who feel inferior would try to do things to make them feel better like trying to seek out power or maybe going out and spending a large sum of money. Adler wrote a book called “Understanding Human Nature”. In his book he laid out his basic theories. Like Freud he too did believe that dreams were really inportant in understanding one’s personality, however he did not believe that dreams revealed more about a person’s sexuality.Pavlov, Ivan1849- 1936Pavlov won a nobel prize for medicine in 1904.
He was interested in the relationship between stimulus and response.Pavlov tested his theory with dogs. He discovered that by ringing a bell and giving them food the would salavate.
He called this an uncontrolled response. Then again he’d ring the bell and give them food. After doing so for hours, he’d ring the bell and the dogs would come running and they’d salavate because they knew the food was coming. This was then calles a controlled response. Pavlov’s work directed on the study of observable behaviour.Durkheim, EmileSociologist1859- 1917Durkheim was a French philosopher.
He was generally the founder of modern sociology. He was very interested in the change in society because he lived in an era od great social upheaval.From his studies he saw that earlier societies had stayed together because the people living in it had realized that they couldn’t live unless they co-operated with each other.Durkheim believed that the new industrial society could stay together with less co-operation because they identified society as a whole. He also looked at the reasons for suicide his studies led him to find out that there were three types of suicide.
They are as follows: egoistic suicide, which is when a person feels like they are too good for society and they believe they should not live with the people surrounding them, altruistic suicide, which is when a person will sacrifice themselves for another person to live, and anomic suicide, which is when a person thinks that society is moving to fast for them or they can’t cope with life. He predicted that anomic suicide would be the most common in the future.Marx, KarlSociologist1818- 1883Marx lived during the industrial revolution when a lot of the factories were replacing small shops.
Marx asked a question to himself “Why was it that a few had become wealthy while the majority had nothing?” The answer he came upon was that there was uneven distrubution of wealth. Also there was a struggle between the rich and the poor. He called this class conflict. The rich people who owned the production were called the capitalists, and the poor who had nothing were called the proletariats. Marx was the founder of conflict school of sociology. He believed that the people struggled for power and wealth.
Weber, MaxSociologist1864- 1920Weber believed that Marx had placed to uch emphasis on the economic factors on describing the problems between the rich and the poor. He believed that they were other issues too, such as religion, education, politics etc. weber believed that anyone could acquire power by doing their own things such as joining an elite group or joining a political party. Weber did not believe that revoloution was the only way to bring about change. He believed that government bureaucracies would create improvements that would solve the problems that Marx talked about.
Fossey, DianAnthropologist1938- 1985Dian was famous for her studies done on the gorillias. Beginning in 1966 she started to live with the gorillias. This went on for nineteen years. First Dian found it hard to get close to the gorillias, but as they began to see her and remember her, they began to let her slowley live with them. She began to learn their habits and sounds and how to imitate them. Dian watched the gorillas and she concluded that they show affection to their family members.
She believed that the gorillas shared much in common with our earlier ansestors. Poachers tried to frighten dian many times but they did not succeed. However because she wouldn’t get frightened easiely, she eventually got murdered by unknown persons in 1985. Much of her work was unfinished.Goodall, JaneAnthropologist1934-Goodall has spent most her life since the mid 60’s studying chimps and recording their behaviour. At first she was forced to observe them from afar but then soon after the chimps reconized her they slowley let her in.
She discovered that the chimps had little tools to do some of their regular daily routines. She had earlier believed that chimps were only vegitareians but she soon found out that they wern’t. She discovered that one male could win over power of the other males by showing strenght and agressivness. All the other males would try to defeat the one powerful one.
If one male did so then he would become the powerful one.Leykeys, ThePhysical Anthropologists1903-1972The Leykeys are a family of anthropologists. Most of their studies were conducted between the years of 1931 to 1959 in Kenya and Tanzania.
The Leykeys discovered the groups of species call Australopithecus and Homo Habilis. They did their experiments with ancient aged tools such as axes and scrapers. They did this so they could discover how our ansestors had hunted for food. Louis Leykey believed that apes, gorillas and chimps could lead to a greater understanding of earlier human lives. When he passed away and Mary retired, their son, Richard took over their research.
Murdock, GeorgeAnthropologist and Sociologist1897- 1985Murdock studied the societies of the world. He believed that all the societies shared many similar characteristics. He had a different approach than other researchers. They focused on the factors that made societies different from one another. In his work he showed that sociologists must not concentrate on the forces of division in society. He showed the need to explain why religion and social status, concepts of good and bad are all recurring themes in all human societies.
Mead, Margaret1901 – 1978Cultural AnthropologistHer studies focused on studies of people’s cultures and lives in the Pacific islands. Her earliest investigations took place in Samoa in the South Pacific in the 1920s. She studied the Samoan culture and she compared it to the American culture. She discovered that unlike North American teens, the young Samoans did not experience the same problems as North Americans.
She found out that a person’s personality was a reflection of the environment in which they grew up. While the Americans were raised to compete against each other, the Samoans were taught to co-operate.Jung, Carl1875 – 1961PsychologistHe read many of Freud’s works and then he conducted his own expiriments. He went to Vienna in 1907 to work with his inventor.
He also believed that Freud’s idea of the unconscious mind was too simplistic. He thought that the mind was made up of two parts: the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. He originated the concept of four psychological functions which are (1) sensation; (2) intuition, (3) thinking; (4) feeling. He outlined the differences between introverts and extroverts. Skinner, B.
F1904 – 1990PsychologistHis full name is Burrus Frederic Skinner.He was interested in Pavlov’s work and so he conducted animal experiments of his own. He developed the theory of operant conditioning. This was the idea learning could take place through good or bad. He did his experiments with rats. What he would do is to place one in a cage , he would give them food when the light was green.
If they ate it, nothing would happen. If they ate it when the light was red, they would get a buzz. He is most famous for the development of the skinner box.
Gradually over time, his experiments became more complicated. He also developed a theory of behaviour modification. He believed that people could be persuaded to show good behaviours if they were properly reinforced for displaying them.
Piaget, Jean1896 – 1960Developmental PsychologistOne of his main interests was the way in which humans learn. One of his first jobs was to mark children’s tests. Once he got bored with just marking right or wrong, he started to compare and look for patterns in their answers.
He concluded that there must be differences in children’s abilities to learn and to apply logic. He theory was that when babies come into the world they cannot survive on their own. They must adapt to the situation that they find themselves in. He concluded that children experience four stages of learning.
He believed that all the healthy children experience these stages all in the same order and basically at the same age. Parsons, Talcott1902 – 1979SociologistHe focused on the links between psychology, anthropology, and sociology. He thought that people were free to make their own decision and choices so he worked from that assumption. He figured that people chose their clothes and their behaviour depending upon the way that societal norm. They would usually adopt the behaviour and language of the social group to which they belong.
Comte, Auguste1798 – 1857French PhilosopherComte invented the term “sociology”. This was to describe the scientific study of society. Although his methods were crude, his contribution to the discipline cannot be disputed.
He observed societies change over time and that these changes were difficult for people as they tried to adapt. He created two major categories: (1) social statics: which was the study of customs, institutions and laws of a society; and (2) social dynamics: which was the stages through which societies must pass as they experience change. His most important contribution to sociology was positivism. He believed that scientists and sociologists working together were capable of a greater understanding. Galdikas, Birute1945 AnthropologistGaldikas was interested in the work that the Leykeys had done. Lewis Leykey offered Galdikas the chance to study orang-utans. In 1968 she set up a camp on the Pacific Island.
She concluded that they spent most of their time in trees, usually moving from one tree to another. This made it difficult for her to observe. Like the chimpanzees, orang-utans have a highly developed social structure. Occasionally, one of the bigger orang-utans will kill another one for meet from the same tribe. She spent 8 months in the Indonesian jungle studying these animals. Lorenz, Konrad1903 – 1989AnthropologistHe was the Austrian founder of ethology which was a study of comparing behaviour in animals.
He was best known for his work on imprinting in birds. He discovered that a duckling would adopt as a parent, the first moving thing that they saw after hatching from the egg. He also studied aggression and violence. However, he believed that aggression could be channelled into more constructive behaviour.
Malinowski, Bronislaw1884 – 1942Social AnthropologistMalinowski worked with the people of New Guinea and the nearby Trobriand Islands in the South Pacific. What he did there was to record details of their social institutions. He was one of the earliest supporters of the functionalist school of social science. He rejected the Darwin evolution theory, believing instead that civilization of northern Europe were more advanced than those of Africa and the Pacific, and that anthropology’s role was to explain and not to judge. Boas, Franz1858 – 1942AnthropologistHe is considered the founder of American anthropology. He focused mainly on the language and culture of American native people.
He believed that it was essential for the anthropologist to keep highly accurate records of their observations. The data would only be valid if supported by large amounts. He established a link between anthropology and ethnology.
Levi-Straus, Claude1908Cultural AnthropologistHis research was devoted to analyzing the cultural artifacts of different societies. This was so he could understand their thought patterns. He demonstrated how tribal behaviour and law codes reflected universal thought patterns. He observed that in most cultures it was possible to find behaviours, such as incest, that were universally taboo. Much of his work concentrated on the study of myths in various cultures. Most cultures believe in some kind of supernatural power beyond the control of humans.
Benedict, Ruth1887 – 1948Cultural AnthropologistShe studied cultural influences particularly religion, in developing and shaping human personality. She focused on the native peoples of the American plains. Her work helped to create a heightened interest in a greater knowledge of North American native societies. During the 2nd world war she was employed by the American government. This was so she could prepare a study on Japanese culture. Her work showed that anthropology was gaining respect in American society.
Erikson, Erik1902 – 1994PsychoanalystHe was interested in human development. He believed that all individuals struggle to establish their identities. He invented the term, “identity crisis”. This was to describe the conflict inside us as we struggle to achieve our unique identity. According to his theory, a normal life span is 8 stages from when you are young to when you are old.
A person who has not solved their conflicts during their life is likely to feel haunted by a sense of lost opportunities. They may wish to have the chance to live life over again so they can avoid making the same mistake. Kohlberg, Lawrence1966Developmental PsychologistHe formulated the cognitive developmental theory.
He doesn’t think that children learn to become members of society through direct teaching. He thinks the children learn rules by actively exploring the world. According to Kohlberg, a child’s greatest need is to make sense out of their world. In order for them to do this, they must be able to master simple skills that are required to cope in their environment. As children go on, they need to have experiences to help them understand the behaviour of people and how they interact with one another. Mead, George Herbert1930sProfessor of PhilosophyHe theorized that children use their imaginations to play out the interactions they might have with people. Mead’s process of socialization involves three stages.
The first one is the preparatory stage. The children watch the behavours of others and try to imitate them. They talk to their imaginary friends. Stage two is when children are in school and they play and take on the roles of adults.
Stage three is when a child enters a stage where they begin to understand the rules of different roles within a team.They begin to understand their expectations.Lynn, David1969-Social learning theoristHe believes that children are socilazied through imitation and positive reinforcement. Children need good role models to become good members of society. He believes that children learn to become socilized through praise and punishment this way they learn concequences. He sees that punishment issometimes not always effictive.
For example if a student is late and a teacher assigns a detention the student doesn’t learn and they will just be late again.Mackie, Marlene1983-SociologistShe says that socialization is a lifetime learning process. Sometimes people are forced to rethink old expectactions. She claims that socialization carries value connotations of right and wrong. We deliver these expectations through various agents of socialization. These include the family, religious institutions, school etc.Gilligan, CarolNo DatesSociologistShe says that in order for a child to become a member in society they need to internalize society’s morals.
As a child interacts with people in different situations they will behave according to how their role model acts. She believes that men and women develop a different set of morals throughout the socialization process due to the different ways in which society reacts to males and females.Darwin, Charles1809- 1882BiologistHe made significant contributions to the fields of natural history and geology.He believed that all living species evolved from form existing long ago.