CHAPTER 15 Current Liabilities Management INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCES Overview This chapter introduces the fundamentals and describes the interrelationship of net working capital, profitability, and risk in managing the firm’s current liability accounts. The management of current liabilities requires choosing appropriate levels of financing and involves trade-offs between risk and profitability. This chapter also reviews sources of secured and unsecured short-term financing, including the role of international loans.
Spontaneous sources, such as accounts payable and accruals, are differentiated from negotiated bank sources, such as lines of credit. The cash discount offered on accounts payable and the cost of forgoing the discount are described. Secured sources include bank and commercial finance company loans backed by collateral such as inventory or accounts receivable. PMF DISK This chapter’s topics are not covered on the PMF Tutor or the PMF Problem-Solver. PMF Templates The following spreadsheet template is provided:
ProblemTopic 15-8Cost of bank loan Study Guide The following Study Guide examples are suggested for classroom presentation: ExampleTopic 1Loss of loan discounts 4Accounts receivable as collateral ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS 15-1The two key sources of spontaneous short-term financing (financing that arises from the normal operating cycle) are accounts payable and accruals. Both of these sources are spontaneous, since their levels increase and decrease directly with increases or decreases in sales.
If sales increase, the firm will purchase more new materials, resulting in higher accruals of these items. 15-2There is no cost(stated or unstated(associated with taking a cash discount; there is a cost of giving up a cash discount. By giving up a cash discount, the purchaser pays the full price for merchandise but can make the payment later. The unstated cost of giving up a cash discount is the implied rate of interest paid to delay payments. This rate can be used to make decisions with respect to whether or not the discount should be taken.
If the cost of giving up the cash discount is greater than the cost of borrowing short-term funds, the firm should take the discount. Cash discounts can be a source of additional profitability for a firm. However, some firms, either due to lack of alternative funding sources or ignorance of the true cost, do not take advantage of these discounts. 15-3Stretching accounts payable is the process of delaying the payment of accounts payable for as long as possible without damaging the firm’s credit rating. Stretching payments reduces the implicit cost of giving up a cash discount. 5-4The prime rate of interest, which is the lowest rate charged on business loans to the best business borrowers, is usually used by the lender as a base rate to which a premium is added by the lender, depending upon the risk of the borrower, in order to determine the rate charged. A floating-rate loan has its interest tied to the prime rate. The rate of interest is established at an increment above the prime rate and floats at that increment above prime over the term of the note. 15-5The effective interest rate is the actual rate of interest paid for the period.
The calculation of this rate depends on whether interest is paid at maturity or in advance (deducted from the loan so that the borrower receives less than the requested amount). When interest is paid at maturity, the effective interest rate is equal to: [pic] The effective interest rate when interest is paid in advance–a discount loan–is calculated as follows: [pic] Paying interest in advance raises the effective rate above the stated rate. 15-6A single-payment note is an unsecured loan from a commercial bank.
It usually has a short maturity(30 to 90 days(and the interest rate is normally tied in some way to the prime rate of interest. The interest rate on these notes may be fixed or floating. The effective annual interest rate when the note is rolled over throughout the year on the same terms is calculated on a compound basis as follows, using Equation 5. 10: [pic] 15-7A line of credit is an agreement between a commercial bank and a business that states the amount of unsecured short-term borrowing the bank will make available to the firm over a given period of time. a.
In a line of credit agreement, a bank may retain the right to revoke the line if any major changes occur in the firm’s financial condition or operations. b. To ensure that the borrower will be a good customer, frequently a line of credit will require the borrower to maintain compensating balances in a demand deposit. In some cases, fees in lieu of balances may be negotiated. c. To ensure that money lent under the credit agreement is actually being used to finance seasonal needs, banks require that the borrower have a zero loan balance for a certain number of days per year.
This is called the annual cleanup period. 15-8A revolving credit agreement is a guaranteed line of credit. Under a line of credit agreement, a firm is not guaranteed that the bank will have funds available to lend upon demand, while under the more formal revolving credit agreement the availability of funds is guaranteed. Since the lender under the revolving credit agreement guarantees the availability of funds, the borrower must pay a commitment fee, a fee levied against the average unused portion of the line. 5-9Commercial paper (CP), which is a short-term, unsecured promissory note, can be sold by large, creditworthy firms in order to raise funds. Commercial paper is merely the IOU of a financially sound firm. The maturity of commercial paper is generally between 3 to 270 days and is normally issued in multiples of $100,000 or more. The interest rate on CP is usually 1 to 2 percent below the prime rate and is a less costly source of short-term funds than bank loans. Commercial paper is purchased by corporations, life insurance companies, pension funds, banks, and other financial institutions and investors.
Commercial paper may be sold directly by the issuing firm to a purchaser or may be sold through a middleman known as a commercial paper house, which charges a fee to the issuer for its marketing efforts. 15-10International transactions differ from domestic ones because they involve payments made or received in a foreign currency. This results in additional foreign costs and also exposes the company to foreign exchange risk. A letter of credit is a letter written by a company’s bank to a foreign supplier that effectively guarantees payment of an invoiced amount, assuming that all the specified terms are met. Netting” occurs when a company’s subsidiaries or divisions located in different countries have transactions that result in intracompany receivables and payables. Rather than pay the gross amount of both the receivables and payables, paying the net amount due(which is lower(allows the parent to reduce foreign exchange fees and other transaction costs. 15-11Lenders view secured and unsecured short-term loans as having the same degree of risk. The benefit of the collateral for a secured loan is only beneficial if the firm goes into bankruptcy.
The risk associated with going bankrupt and defaulting on and loan does not change due to be secured or unsecured. 15-12The interest rate charged on secured short-term loans is typically higher than the interest rate on unsecured short-term loans. Typically, companies that require secured loans may not qualify for unsecured debt, and they are perceived as higher-risk borrowers by lenders. The presence of collateral does not change the risk of default; it provides a means to reduce losses if the borrower defaults. In general, lenders require security for less creditworthy, higher-risk borrowers.
Since the negotiation and administration of these loans is more troublesome for the lender, the lender normally requires certain fees to be paid by the secured borrower. The higher rates on these secured short-term loans are attributable to the greater risk of default and the increased loan administration costs of these loans over the unsecured short-term loan. 15-13a. A pledge of accounts receivable is the use of a firm’s receivables to secure a short-term loan. The lender evaluates the quality of the accounts receivable, selects acceptable accounts, and files a lien on the collateral.
After the selection of accounts, the lender determines the percentage advanced against receivables. Typically ranging from 50 to 90 percent of the face value of the acceptable receivables, this amount becomes the principal on the loan. Pledging receivables usually costs 2 to 5 percent above the prime rate due to the nature of the borrower and additional administrative costs. Commercial banks offer this type of financing. b. Factoring accounts receivable is the outright sale to the factor or other financial institution. The factor sets the conditions of the sale in a factoring agreement.
Normally factoring is done on a nonrecourse basis (the factor accepts all credit risks), and the customer is usually notified that the account receivable has been sold. Factoring can typically cost from 3 to 7 percent above the prime rate, including commissions and interest. This type of financing is handled by specialized financial institutions called factors; some commercial banks and commercial finance companies factor receivables. While the cost is high, the advantages include immediate conversion of receivables into cash and also the known pattern of cash flows. 15-14a.
Floating inventory liens are made by lenders and secured by a claim on general inventory consisting of a diversified and low cost group of merchandise. Generally less than 50 percent of the book value of the average inventory is advanced. The interest charge on a floating lien is typically 3 to 5 percent above the prime rate. b. Trust receipt inventory loans are often made by manufacturers’ financing subsidiaries to their customers. Under this arrangement, merchandise is typically expensive (automotive, industrial and consumer-durable equipment, for example) and remains in the hands of the borrower.
The lender advances 80 to 100% of the cost of the salable inventory. The borrower is free to sell the merchandise and is trusted to remit the loan amount plus accrued interest to the lender immediately. The interest charge is generally 2 percent or more above the prime rate. c. A warehouse receipt loan is an arrangement whereby the lender receives control of the pledged collateral. The inventory may be retained by the borrower in the firm’s warehouse with security administered by a field warehousing company. Or the inventory may be stored in a terminal warehouse located in the geographic vicinity of the borrower.
Generally, less than 75 to 90 percent of the collateral’s value is advanced to the borrower at an interest rate from 4 to 8 percent above the prime rate. SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 15-1LG 1: Payment Dates a. December 25b. December 30 c. January 9d. January 30 15-2LG 1: Cost of Giving Up Cash Discount a. (. 02 ( . 98)x(360 ( 20)=36. 73% b. (. 01 ( . 99)x(360 ( 20)=18. 18% c. (. 02 ( . 98)x(360 ( 35)=20. 99% d. (. 03 ( . 97)x(360 ( 35)=31. 81% e. (. 01 ( . 99)x(360 ( 50)=7. 27% f. (. 03 ( . 97)x(360 ( 20)=55. 67% g. (. 04 ( . 96)x(360 ( 170)=8. 82% 15-3LG 1: Credit Terms a. 1/15 net 45 date of invoice /10 net 30 EOM 2/7 net 28 date of invoice 1/10 net 60 EOM b. 45 days 50 days 28 days 80 days c. [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] d. In all four cases the firm would be better off to borrow the funds and take the discount. The annual cost of not taking the discount is greater than the firm’s 8% cost of capital. 15-4LG 1: Cash Discount versus Loan Cost of giving up cash discount = (. 03 ( . 97) x (360 ( 35) = 31. 81% Since the cost of giving up the discount is higher than the cost of borrowing for a short-term loan, Erica is correct; her boss is incorrect. 15-5LG 1, 2: Cash Discount Decisions |a. Supplier |Cost of Forgoing Discount |b. |Decision | | |J |(. 01 ( . 99) x (360 ( 20) = 18. 18% | | Borrow | | |K |(. 02 ( . 98) x (360 ( 60) = 12. 24% | | Give up | | |L |(. 01 ( . 99) x (360 ( 40) = 9. 09% | | Give up | | |M |(. 03 ( . 97) x (360 ( 45) = 24. 74% | | Borrow |
Prairie would have lower financing costs by giving up Ks and Ls discount since the cost of forgoing the discount is lower than the 16% cost of borrowing. c. Cost of giving up discount from Supplier M = (. 03 ( . 97) x (360 ( 75) = 14. 85% In this case the firm should give up the discount and pay at the end of the extended period. 15-6LG 2: Changing Payment Cycle Annual Savings = ($10,000,000) x (. 13) = $1,300,000 15-7LG 2: Spontaneous Sources of Funds, Accruals Annual savings = $750,000 x . 11 = $82,500 15-8LG 3: Cost of Bank Loan a. Interest = ($10,000 x . 15) x (90 ( 360) = $375 b. [pic] c.
Effective annual rate = (1 + 0. 0375)4 – 1 = 15. 87% 15-9LG 3: Effective Annual Rate of Interest [pic] 15-10LG 3: Compensating Balances and Effective Annual Rates a. Compensating balance requirement= $800,000 borrowed x 15% = $120,000 Amount of loan available for use= $800,000 – $120,000 = $680,000 Interest paid= $800,000 x 11 % = $ 88,000 Effective interest rate[pic] b. Additional balances required= $120,000 – $70,000 = $ 50,000 Effective interest rate[pic] c. Effective interest rate= 11% (None of the $800,000 borrowed is required to satisfy the compensating balance requirement. ) d.
The lowest effective interest rate occurs in situation c, when Lincoln has $150,000 on deposit. In situations a and b, the need to use a portion of the loan proceeds for compensating balances raises the borrowing cost. 15-11LG 4: Compensating Balance vs. Discount Loan a. [pic] This calculation assumes that Weathers does not maintain any normal account balances at State Bank. [pic] b. If Weathers became a regular customer of State Bank and kept its normal deposits at the bank, then the additional deposit required for the compensating balance would be reduced and the cost would be lowered. 15-12LG 5: Integrative–Comparison of Loan Terms . (. 08 + . 033) ( . 80 = 14. 125% b. Effective annual interest rate = [pic] c. The revolving credit account seems better, since the cost of the two arrangements is the same; with a revolving loan arrangement, the loan is committed. 15-13LG 4: Cost of Commercial Paper a. [pic] Effective annual rate = ( 1 + . 0225)4 – 1 = 9. 31% b. [pic] Effective annual rate = ( 1 + . 0326)4 – 1 = 13. 69% 15-14LG 5: Accounts Receivable as Collateral a. Acceptable Accounts Receivable CustomerAmount D$ 8,000 E50,000 F12,000 H46,000 J22,000 K62,000 Total Collateral$200,000 b. Adjustments: 5% returns/allowances, 80% advance percentage.
Level of available funds = [$200,000 x (1 – . 05)] x . 80 = $152,000 15-15LG 5: Accounts Receivable as Collateral a. CustomerAmount A$20,000 E2,000 F12,000 G27,000 H19,000 Total Collateral$80,000 b. $80,000 x (1 – . 1)=$72,000 c. $72,000 x (. 75)=$54,000 15-16LG 3, 5: Accounts Receivable as Collateral, Cost of Borrowing a. [$134,000 – ($134,000 x . 10)] x . 85 = $102,510 b. ($100,000 x . 02) + ($100,000 x . 115) = $2,000 + $11,500 = $13,500 [pic] ($100,000 x . 02) + [pic] = $2,000 + $5,750 = $7,750 [pic] Effective annual rate = (1 + . 0775)2 – 1 = 16. 1% ($100,000 x . 02) + [pic] = $2,000 + $2,875 = $4,875 [pic]
Effective annual rate = (1 + . 0488)4 – 1 = 21. 0% 15-17LG 5: Factoring Holder Company Factored Accounts May 30 | | | |Status on |Amount |Date of | |Accounts |Amount |Date Due |May 30 |Remitted |Remittance | |A |$200,000 |5/30 |C 5/15 |$196,000 |5/15 | |B |90,000 |5/30 |U |88,200 |5/30 | |C |110,000 |5/30 U |107,800 |5/30 | |D |85,000 |6/15 |C 5/30 |83,300 |5/30 | |E |120,000 |5/30 |C 5/27 |117,600 |5/27 | |F |180,000 |6/15 |C 5/30 |176,400 |5/30 | |G |90,000 |5/15 |U |88,200 |5/15 | |H |30,000 |6/30 |C 5/30 |29,400 |5/30 | The factor purchases all acceptable accounts receivable on a nonrecourse basis, so remittance is made on uncollected as well as collected accounts. 15-18LG 6, 7: Inventory Financing . City-Wide Bank:[$75,000 x (. 12 ( 12)] +(. 0025 x $100,000)=$1,000 Sun State Bank:$100,000 x (. 13 ( 12)=$1,083 Citizens’ Bank and Trust:[$60,000 x (. 15 ( 12)] + (. 005 x $60,000)=$1,050 b. City-Wide Bank is the best alternative, since it has the lowest cost. c. Cost of giving up cash discount=(. 02 ( . 98)(360 / 20)=36. 73% The effective cost of taking a loan=($1,000 / $75,000) x 12=16. 00% Since the cost of giving up the discount (36. 73%) is higher than borrowing at Citywide Bank (16%), the firm should borrow to take the discount. CHAPTER 15 CASE Selecting Kanton Company’s Financing Strategy and Unsecured Short-Term Borrowing Arrangement
This case asks the student to evaluate the permanent and short-term funding requirements of Kanton Company, and to choose a financing strategy from among three alternatives: aggressive, conservative, and trade-off. The company’s funding requirements vary considerably during the year, showing a seasonal pattern and peaking mid-year. Then the student must calculate the effective annual interest rates for two short-term borrowing alternatives and make a recommendation. a. Strategy I – Aggressive (1)Amount required:$2,500,000 short-term and $1,000,000 long-term (2)Cost:(10% x $2,500,000) + (14% x $1,000,000) = $390,000 Strategy 2 – Conservative (1)Amount required:$7,000,000 long-term and $0 short-term (2)Cost:(14% x $7,000,000) = $980,000 Strategy 3 – Trade-off (1)Calculation of short-term requirements |(1) |(2) | | | |Total Funds |Permanent |Seasonal | |Month |Requirements |Requirements |Requirements | |January |$1,000,000 |$3,000,000 |$ 0 | |February |1,000,000 |3,000,000 |0 | |March |2,000,000 |3,000,000 |0 | |April |3,000,000 |3,000,000 |0 | |May |5,000,000 |3,000,000 |2,000,000 | |June |7,000,000 |3,000,000 4,000,000 | |July |6,000,000 |3,000,000 |3,000,000 | |August |5,000,000 |3,000,000 |2,000,000 | |September |5,000,000 |3,000,000 |2,000,000 | |October |4,000,000 |3,000,000 |1,000,000 | |November |2,000,000 |3,000,000 |0 | |December |1,000,000 |3,000,000 |0 | Monthly Average:Permanent=$3,000,000 Seasonal=$1,166,667 (sum of seasonal requirements ( 12) 2)Cost:(10% x $1,166,667) + (14% x $3,000,000) = $536,667 b. Net working capital = Current assets – Current liabilities Aggressive=$4,000,000-$2,500,000=$1,500,000 Conservative=$4,000,000-$0=$4,000,000 Trade-off=$4,000,000-$1,166,667=$2,833,333 c. The three strategies differ in terms of profitability and risk. The aggressive strategy is the most profitable(it has the lowest cost, $300,000(because it uses the largest amount of the less-expensive short-term financing. It also pays interest only on needed financing. The aggressive strategy is also the most risky, relying heavily on short-term financing, which may have more limited availability. Net working capital is lowest, also increasing risk.
Because the conservative strategy funds the highest amount in any month for the whole year with more-expensive long-term financing, it is the most expensive ($980,000) and the least profitable. It is the lowest-risk strategy, however, reserving short-term financing for emergencies. The high level of working capital also reduces risk. The trade-off strategy falls between the two extremes in terms of both profitability and risk. The cost ($536,667) is higher than the aggressive strategy because the permanent funds requirement of $3,000,000 is financed with more costly long-term funds. In five months (January, February, March, November, and December), the company pays interest on unneeded funds.
The risk is less than with the aggressive strategy; some short-term borrowing capacity is preserved for emergencies. Because a portion of short-term requirements is financed with long-term funds, the firm’s ability to obtain short-term financing is good. Mr. Mercado should consider implementing the trade-off strategy. The wide swings in monthly funds requirements make the cost of the conservative strategy very high in comparison to the reduced risk. For the same reason, the aggressive strategy is quite risky, requiring the firm to raise short-term funds ranging from $1,000,000 to $6,000,000. If it should become difficult to arrange short-term financing, Kanton Company would be in trouble.
Note:Other recommendations are possible, depending on the student’s risk preference. Of course, the student should present sound reasons for his or her choice of strategy. d. (1)Effective interest, line of credit: Interest on borrowing: $600,000 x (7% + 2. 5%) = $57,000 [pic] (2)Effective interest, revolving credit agreement: Cost of borrowing: Interest: $600,000 x (7% + 3. 0%)$60,000 Commitment Fee: $400,000 x . 5%2,000 Total$62,000 [pic][pic] e. The line of credit arrangement seems better, since its annual cost of 11. 88% is less than the 12. 92% cost of the revolving loan arrangement. Kanton will save about 1% in terms of annual interest cost (11. 88% versus 12. 92%) by using the line of credit.
The only negative is that if Third National lacks loanable funds, Kanton may not be able to borrow the needed funds. Under the revolving credit agreement, funds availability would be guaranteed. INTEGRATIVE CASE 5 CASA DE DISENO Integrative Case V, Casa de Diseno, involves evaluating working capital management of a furniture manufacturer. Operating cycle, cash conversion cycle, and negotiated financing needed are determined and compared with industry practices. The student then analyzes the impact of changing the firm’s credit terms to evaluate its management of accounts receivable before making a recommendation. a. Operating Cycle=Average Age of Inventory + Average Collection Period =110 days + 75 days =185 days
Cash Conversion Cycle=Operating Cycle – Average Payment Period =185 days – 30 days =155 days Resources needed=[pic] =[pic] =$11,409,722 b. Industry OC=83 days + 75 days =158 days Industry CCC=158 days – 39 days =119 days Industry Resources needed=[pic] =$8,759,722 c. Casa de Diseno Negotiated Financing$11,409,722 Less: Industry Resources needed8,759,722 $ 2,650,000 Cost of inefficiency:$2,650,000 x . 15=$397,500 d. (1)Offering 3/10 net 60: Reduction in collection period=75 days x (1 – . 4) =45 days Operating cycle=83 days + 45 days =128 days Cash Conversion Cycle=128 days – 39 days =89 days Resources needed=[pic] =$6,551,389
Additional Savings=$8,759,722 – $6,551,389=$2,208,333 =$2,208,333 x . 15=$331,250 (2)Reduction in sales:$40,000,000 x . 45 x . 03=$540,000 (3)Average investment in accounts receivable assuming cash discount: New average collection period=45 days ($40,000,000 x . 80) ( (360 ( 45)=$4,000,000 Average investment in accounts receivable assuming no cash discount: (40,000,000 x . 80) ( (360 ( 75)=$6,666,667 Reduction in investment in accounts receivable: $6,66,667 – $4,000,000=$2,666,667 Annual savings: $2,666,667 x . 15=$400,000 (4)Reduction in bad debt expense: $40,000,000 x (. 02 – . 015)=$200,000 (5)Cost of offering cash discount($540,000)
Annual savings from reduction in investment in accounts receivable400,000 Annual savings from reduction in bad debt expense200,000 Savings due to cash discount$ 60,000 e. Ms. Leal should bring working capital measures in line with the industry and offer the proposed cash discount. f. The other sources of financing available include both unsecured and secured sources. Unsecured Sources: ? Short-term self-liquidating bank loans – usually used to help with seasonal needs where the loan is repaid as receivables are collected ? Single payment bank notes – normally a short-term (30 days to 9 months) loan to be repaid on the end of the loan period. ? Line of credit – a loan uch like a credit card in that the borrow can draw down the money as needed and make various payments. The loan must often be paid in full at some point within each year. ? Revolving credit agreement – a guaranteed amount of funds available to the borrower. The borrower usually pays a commitment fee to the bank to compensate them for having the funds available “on demand. ” ? Commercial paper – a 3 day to 270 day loan sold as a security to the lender. Secured Sources: ? Pledging accounts receivable – a lender purchases the receipts to be received from the accounts receivable accounts of the borrower. The lender advances the money to the borrower in an amount discounted from the book value of the receivables.
When the borrower collects the receivables payments the money is remitted to the lender. ? Factoring accounts receivable – Selling the firms accounts receivable to a lender at a discount to the book value of the receivables. The factor normally receives the payment directly from the customer when they make payment. ? Floating inventory liens – when inventory is used as collateral for a loan. ? Trust receipt inventory loans – a loan against relatively expensive and easily identifiable assets, such as automobile. The loan is repaid when the asset is sold. ? Warehouse receipt loans – when assets in a warehouse are pledged against a loan. The lender takes control of the inventory items that are normally stored in a public warehouse.