Fascism responseto the rapid social upheaval, the devastation

Fascism responseto the rapid social upheaval, the devastation

Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose inthe early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a responseto the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and theBolshevik Revolution.

Fascism is a philosophy or a system ofgovernment the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extremeright, typically through the merging of state and business leadership,together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Celebrating thenation or the race as an organic community surpassing all otherloyalties. This right-wing philosophy will even advocate violentaction to maintain this loyalty which is held in such high regards. Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist andelitist.

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Populist in that it seeks to activate “the people” as a wholeagainst perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation ofunity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people’s will on oneselect group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from whomall power proceeds downward. The two most recognized names that goalong with Fascism is Italy’s Benito Mussolini and Germany’s Adolf Hitler.

The philosophy of Fascism can be traced to the philosophers who arguethat the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or reason. George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Hegal are main philosophers who’s beliefs and ideologies greatly influenced the shapingof Fascist theory. Sorel (1847-1922) was a French social philosopherwho had a major influence on Mussolini. Sorel believed that societiesnaturally became decadent and disorganized.

This decay could only beslowed by the leadership of idealists who were willing to use violenceto obtain power. Nietzsche (1844-1900) theorized that there were twomoral codes: the ruling class ( master morality) and the oppressedclass (slave morality). Nietzsche believed the ancient empires weredeveloped from the master majority and the religious ideas and viewsgrew out the slave majority. The idea of the “overman” or supermanwhich symbolized man at his most creative and highest intellectualcapacity was brought about by Nietzsche as well. Hegal believed peopleshould sacrifice for the community.

He thought war was also necessaryto unify the state, with peace bring nothing but a weak society. Hegalalso sustained that laws should be made by the corporate organization ofthe state.Fascism values human nature in a group for the benefit of thecommunity. The group as a whole is called the human will, which isruled by a select group or one leader, with the power being passed downfrom top to bottom. Fascism seeks to organize an organization led massmovement in an effort to capture the state power. When the power is inthe firm grip of the ruler, or IL Duce, the government will be used tocontrol the population and everything in it so the community will bebenefited.Fascism’s ideal government would be fashioned around the good of thecommunity or nation.

Everyone would work for the benefit of the nationand that is all. Regularly this would take place with the merging ofthe state and business leadership, with concern only of the nation. Inthis the nation will also take care of its members if the need shouldarise. This could be money ,shelter, food, or any other need that mightcome about.

The ideology of Fascism has been identified with totalitarianism, stateterror, fanaticism, arranged violence, and blind obedience. Adolf Hitler established his own personal ideology, Mein Kampf, which meansMy Struggle. The book was written while Hitler was in prison and notyet in power. Mussolini fashioned his ideology after he took control ofItaly.

Despite their two different angles on the use of Fascism Hitlerand Mussolini both worked similarly on how they established theirprinciples in the same basic manner. Their principles came from basicresponses to various issues the leaders faced.Fascism is an authoritarian political movement that developed in Italyand other European countries after 1919 as a reaction against theprofound political and social changes brought about from inflation, anddeclining social, economic, and political conditions. Italy, which wasready for a new political aspect, was the birthplace of fascistideology. Benito Mussolini was the man who brought this ideology toItaly. Mussolini had been looking for the perfect opportunity to takecomplete control of the country and now was the time to do so.

Mussolinisaid “Fascism, which was not afraid to call itself reactionarydoes nothesitate to call itself illiberal and anti-liberal” (Nazi Fascism andthe Modern Totalitarian State) this statement can be easily recognizedin the steps that Mussolini took to gain control of Italy. In 1919Mussolini and his followers, mostly war veterans, were organized alongparamilitary lines and wore black shirts as uniforms. After defeats atthe polls Mussolini used his new financial backing friends to clothe agang of thugs who would attack other street gangs supporting otherideologies that Mussolini disliked. These black shirts also vandalized,terrorized, bullied, and on occasion took control of self-governinggovernments by force. Paralyzed by these violent occurrences, thegovernment did little to combat the fascists. Mussolini furthered hispopularity by supporting eight hour days, elimination of classprivileges, universal suffrage, and tax advantages.

Adolf Hitler’s Nazi (National Socialist German Worker’s Party) party isthe most recognized example of fascism. Nazism is the ideology andpolicies of Hitler and his party from 1921 to 1945. Nazism also stressedthe superiority of the Aryan race, calling for the unification of allGerman-speaking peoples into one single empire. Unlike fascism, thestate was second in importance, behind only racial purity for thenation. Hitler used his book Mein Kampf to establish a plan of actionfor creating this racially pure state. In January of 1933 Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany byHindenburg.

By the end of the year Hitler had concentrated his power asa fascist dictator and began a campaign for a racially pure nation thateventually led to the Holocaust. In order for Hitler to maintain hisability to control the German people he had to organize several militiagroups. Hitler even wrote down important points of the Nazi party thathad to be followed.

These Twenty Five points of Hitler’s party wereenforced by these militia groups.A few of the points made by Hitler are as follows: immigration ofnon-Germans must be prevented, no individual shall do any work thatwould I any way hurt the interest of the community for the benefit ofall, a creation of a national (folk) army, all editors and theirassistants on newspapers published in German must be a citizen, and allmaterial to be published must go through the government for approval.To keep control of the population and maintain the law, Hitler setup he set up militia groups to see that everything was in order. Hitlerbegan to organize the SA, his Nazi storm troopers, which in Mein Kampf he referred to as “an instrument for the conduct and reinforcement ofthe movement’s struggle for its philosophy of life.” (The Rise ofHitler: A New Beginning) Realizing the liking of uniforms by the Germanman the SA adopted a brown-shirt outfit, with boots, swastika armband,badges and caps. The accessories on the outfit would become importantbecause of the visual tools providing easy recognition and visibility,allowing for an increase of notoriety in and out of the Nazi party.

Hitler then created a special unit that would only answer to him and behis personal body guards. The elite groups was known as Schutzstaffel,the staff guard or SS for short. The SS took a black uniform , modeledafter the Italian Fascists. Josef Berchtold, a former stationarysalesman, was the groups first leader.

The Gestapo, established in1933, was a secret state police. All these groups were used to carryout mass murders of anyone or any groups that posed a threat to Hitlerand the party’s beliefs. They would also create, destroy, and falsifyany record that would benefit the party and the nation.Hitler, using modern technology, furthered his power. He used themicrophone, radio, and newspaper to create any appearance that fascismwill be the new political power in the twentieth century. Hitler oncesaid that “The great masses of people will more easily fall victim to abig lie than to a small one.

” (Nazi Fascism and the Modern TotalitarianState) He accomplished this feat by use of the microphone, speaking tothousands at one time he was able to rally support for his cause. Heused the power of the airwaves and print to setup a vial hatred of Jews,blacks, and the physical handicaps, calling them all imperfections ofsociety and they must be destroyed. With the Jews being the mainscapegoat of the Nazi party. Hitler could have held to his belief thatthe dehumanization and scapegoating of the enemy as an inferior racecould have aided in the plot to justify genocide.

Hitler used the mediain the sense that he and his leaders had to approve anything that wasbeing published. Allowing for selective material to be let about theparty and other world events.Mussolini’s Brown Shirts and Hitler’s Nazi’s are not the only rightwing element to have an influence in today’s society.

There arenumerous other groups who have their own agenda to deal with. Eventhough these groups have differences generally they do agree on certainmain issues. With their core administration dealing with issuescentering on anti-government. The issues are gun control, taxes,Constitution liberties, and federal regulations. These militia groups believe that the government is tyrannical, and there is a secret eliteconspiracy on controlling the government, the economy, the culture, orall three. Just as Hitler used the Jews as his scapegoat these militia groups havethere own victims that the use. Federal officials and law enforcementofficers, minority groups, gay and lesbian right activists, and peopleof color or immigrants are just a few of the escape whole the right-wingmilitia use.

One of the most famous right wing militia movements in the UnitedStates is the Ku Klux Klan, or KKK as it is even better known as. TheKKK is a militia group that got started during the disorder of theReconstruction era. Now the Klan’s political agenda are a number ofthings. They believe the United States government should protect thejobs and welfare of American’s first, not just anyone in the third worldcountries.

The Klan does not want to continue seeing America sellitself to foreigners such as the Japanese, America should be owned byAmericans. Closing American borders to immigrants also is a projectthat the KKK thinks should handled by putting American troops at theborder of Mexico.The idea that the end of the world is coming is rapidly growing inright wing religious groups. Leading the way is Pat Robertson and theChristian Coalition.

Robertson and his Christian Coalition is creditedin helping many of the Republican Senators and Congressmen attain theircurrent standings. Robertson even believes by reading Revelation 13that if America were to change its money by putting codes on it that ithave in it the mark of the beast.Some of the states even have their own militia groups.

The MichiganMilitia is just one of the many individual groups. The Michigan Militiabelieves that the American government is undermining the individualfreedoms that American’s posses, and even selling out to internationalorganizations. The drug problem is one of the major areas the groupcentralizes on.

Even though the CIA has taken Noriega out of the drugcartel in Panama the business is still running just as strong due toother members of drug families were put back into power.Most of the people who choose to become part of these groups haveseveral factors influencing their decision. Desperation generally isthe main reason. They are people who barley are hanging on to theirfinical and social status. Wanting to protect themselves and theirchildren from a life of poverty and hardship they join a group that willoffer a family atmosphere of love and support. One idea shared by all fascist movements is the evident lack of aconsistent political standard behind the ideology.

Each individualleader would handle every situation a little differently with no senseof tradition or law. However, one very commonplace aspect about fascismwould be its unsympathetic drive to achieve and maintain state power andsovereignty. On that road to conquest though fascists are willing toabandon any principle to adopt an issue more in acceptance and morelikely to gain converts.Fascism and its right wing counterparts have been influencing twentiethcentury politics in every area. Hitler and Mussolini are perhaps thetwo most noted people to bring fascism to the forefront of government.

Regardless of the power and force fascism has established in the pastthe same conclusion happens every time, it fails. Leading a person toquestion the vitality of this type of government.BIBLIOGRAPHYBaradat, Leon. Political Ideologies. New Jersey:Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1994.

Berlet, Chip. Armed Wing Populism, and Scapegoating. http://paul.spu.edu/sinnfein/berlet.html.Merkel, Peter.

The Making of a Stormtrooper. New Jersey:Princeton University Press, 1980.Nazi Fascism and the Modern Totalitarian State.Payne, Stanley. Fascism.

Wisconsin:The University of Wisconsin Press, 1980.Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.Http://members.iglou.com/kkk/belief.htmlThe History Place: The 25 Points of Hitler’s Nazi Party.http://www.

historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler?25points.htm.The History Place: The Rise of Hitler, A New Beginning.http://www.

historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/new.htm.The History Place: The Rise of Adolf Hitler, Nazi Party is Formed.


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