Cardio breath. Respiratory rate can be measured
Cardio Pulmonary Practical The main aim of the practical was to assess, what affects did light exercise have on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, tidal volume, minute volume and percentage of gas. The readings were taken before exercise, during exercise and after exercise. Blood pressure is defined as the amount of pressure exerted on the vessels walls, during blood flow.
Blood pressure can be measured using a sphygmomanometer. The upper value indicates the systolic pressure; this is the highest level of pressure obtained.This is usually 120mm Hg in healthy adult. The diastolic blood pressure is the pressure achieved before the aortic valves reopen, which is usually between 70- 80mm (Barbara, J. C.
2005). The heart rate is the number of beats that is pumped by the heart per minute. It’s measured by taking the pulse rate. Respiratory rate is the number of breath exhaled and inhaled in a single breath. Respiratory rate can be measured simply by observing the person’s chest and stomach rise and fall.
It is usually measured in breath per minute.Tidal volume is the amount of air inhaled or exhaled in a single breath. In an average human, the tidal volume is about 0. 5litres, while the lungs can hold up to ten times more than this.
Minute volume, is the amount of air or fluid moved per minute. When working with human subject, many considerations need to be taken, firstly the age of the subject. Marieb et al. outlines, ‘foetuses have a higher blood pressure than that of an adult’. Sex is also another factor that determine heart rate. Females usually have a higher heart rate (72-80beats/min), than that of a male (64-72beats/min).
Medical history and cultural background. If a person suffers from cardiovascular disease known as tachycardia, they would have an abnormally fast heart rate, while subjecting suffering from bradycardia, would have the opposite effect. Body temperature can also contribute towards an increase or a decrease in heart beat.
. High body temperature can boost the metabolic rate of the heart cells. Method: The main method was to investigate the above factors, while the subject was resting, exercising and recovering.The type of exercise performed was known as clinical exercise (bike), since we had to evaluate the cardiopulmonary performance of the subject. The subject was required to put a nose clip, and breath through the mouthpiece.
A Douglas bag was used to order to determine gas composition. A sphygmomanometer was used to order to determine the blood pressure, while heartbeat was measured, by measuring the pulse rate. Respiratory rate was simply measured by observation. A slight alternation, was recording the measurement of heart rate.Instead of recording the heart rate every 60 seconds, we recorded it at every 15 seconds in order to get accurate results. The blood pressure was measured at 3 minutes and then at 10 minutes.
Figure 1. Effect of Exercise on heart rate Figure 2: Effect of exercise on Composition of gases Figure 3: Effect exercise on Blood pressure Tidal Volume: Minute Volume: Results: The finding of my experiment concluded, on average there was a general increase in respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure and gas consumption during physical activity.In figure 1, we could see during resting period the average heartbeat ranged between 74-78 beats per minute, while during clinical exercise the heart rate increased, from 98 BPM to 112.
Just before the start of exercise, there was a slight increase in the heartbeat, this is due to the anticipation response, which is controlled through various neurotransmitters, known as epinephrine and norepinephrine. During the exercise, the heartbeat continues to increase according to the intensity of the physical exercise. With increasing time of recovery rate, the heartbeat starts to fall back into its normal state.Figure 2 indicates that as compared to carbon dioxide there is a large amount of oxygen intake and outtake during and after exercise. Oxygen is always needed at a larger scale in order to prevent oxygen debt, whereas carbon dioxide is harmful gas and act as a waste product. It increases the body’s acidity and changes the pH level; therefore it’s very important to get rid of it.
Figure 3 shows an increase in blood pressure especially within the systolic values, on the other hand there was also a slight increase in diastolic blood pressure, after the exercise.Discussion: During physical activity many physiological changes occur within the body. The heart rate increases, in order to meet the high demand of oxygen from muscles and surrounding tissue. While exercising, the arterial barorecepters and mechanoreceptors send impulses to the medullary cardiovascular centre, which increases the sympathetic activity to the AVN node, while decreasing the parasympathetic activity to the SAN node. This change brings an increase in the heart rate.
In addition to the increase of heart rate, the process of vasodilatation also takes place.During this process the widening of blood vessels occur, which leads to an easy blood flow to tissues and muscles (Widmaier, E. P.
et al. 2006). In order to accommodate more blood through the vessels, the heart chambers enlarge and pumps higher percentage of blood at a faster rate.
Which affects the heartbeat by increasing it. The barorecepter reflexes regulate blood pressure as well. In the course of exercise, the systolic blood pressure increases, this is due to increase force of blood being pumped through the ventricles.However there should be a decrease in the diastolic blood pressure, which is not seen from my result (Figure. 3).
The decrease should take place due to the process of vasodilatation, since the arteries widen, this would lower the blood pressure during diastolic phase. Physical activity also plays an important role on the respiratory rate and percentage of gas consumption. Throughout the exercising period, heavy breathing takes place. This is due to the cells of muscles requiring a rapid amount of oxygen, in order to aid for ATP synthesis.During inhaling, the ribs start to expand, in order to allow the expansion or inflation of the lungs (Alan, N. et al 2005). This allows lungs to filter more oxygen during every breath.
While exhaling the lungs contract vigorously, in order to get rid of any harmful gases. From the results obtained (Figure. 2), we can analyse that there is a higher percentage of oxygen intake during inspired rate than expired rate. After physical activity, the body goes into recovery state, in order to resynthesis ATP, glycogen and phosphocreatine, and eliminate lactic acid.
Lactic acid needs to be removed in order to prevent muscle fatigue. During recovering state, everything starts to go back to its normal rate except from respiratory rate. The body still needs oxygen in order repay the oxygen debt. There were many limitations to my experiment. The amount of subject studied, age, medical history and ethnicity were some of the variable factors. Age affect the heart rate of individual, teenagers usually have a higher heart rate than adults.
Medical history, subjects suffering from severe asthma will tend to have a higher respiratory rate than other.In order to improve the experiment, and make it more reliable, a higher number of subjects can be used, the time during physical activity could be increased as well as resting period in order to obtain more variation in results. I would also like to repeat the experiment many times throughout the week. Word Count = 1230 Reference: Alan, N. et al (2005) Exercise and cardiovascular system, In : Alan, N. et al, 2nd Edition. Chruchhill Livingstone: The Cardiovascular System: Edinburgh, pp.
128, 168. Barbara, J.C (2005) The Muscular system In : The Human Body in Health and Disease. 10th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: United State of America, pp. 158,159.
Marieb, E. N and Hoehn, K (2010) The cardiovascular system: Blood Vessels: Marieb E. N & Hoehn, k, 8th edition.
Pearson International Edition: Human Anatomy and Physiology : America: Pearson Education , pp. 825, 877, 879. Widmaier, E. P. et al. (2006) Cardiovascular Physiology. In: Vander’s Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function.
New York, McGraw-Hill, pp. 448-452.