EVOLUTION and organizational activities is the act
EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS & DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT: Management in all business areas and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or efforts for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources.The definitions by different management thinkers are as follows: • Management is the accomplishment of results through the efforts of other people. (Lawrence A. Appley) • Management is the art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. (Koontz H.
) • Management is a process of planning organizing, actuating and controlling to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources. (Terry G. ) • Management is the process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organizations through systematic, coordinated, cooperative human effort. McFarland) • It is the coordination of all resources through the process of planning organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain stated objectives.
(Sisk) Management has also been defined as a decision-making, rule-making and rule enforcing body. According to Professor Moore, management means decision-making. Appley called it personnel administration. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, we can broadly define the term thus: management is concerned with resources, tasks and goals. It is the process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling to ccomplish organizational objectives through the coordinated use of human and material resources. • Early management theory consisted of numerous attempts at getting to know these newcomers to industrial life at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century in Europe and united states. •These includes – Scientific management – Classical organization theory – Behavioral school and management science.
? Frederick Taylor & Scientific Management • Frederick w Taylor (1986-1915) rested his philosophy on four basic principles. 1.The development of a true science of management so that the best method for performing each task could be determined. 2.
The Scientific selection of workers so that the each worker would be given responsibility for the task for which he or she was best suited. 3. The scientific education and development of workers. 4.
Intimate friendly cooperation between management and labor. Scientific management theory arose in part from the need to increase productivity. In the united states especially, skilled labor was in short supply at the beginning of the twentieth century.The only way to expand the productivity was to raise the efficiency of workers. Therefore, Frederick W. Taylor, Henry Gantt, and Frank and Lillian Gilberth devised the body of principles known as scientific management theory • Taylor contended that the success of these principles required “a complete mental revolution” on the part of management and labor. •Rather than quarrel over profits both side should increase production, by so doing ,he believed profits would rise to such an extend that labor have to fight over them.
•In short taylor believed that management and labor had common interest in increasing productivity. . Taylor based his management system on production line time studies.
Instead of relying on traditional work methods, he analyzed and timed steel workers movements on a series of jobs. 2. Using time study he broke each job down into its components and designed the quickest and best method of performing each components. In this way he established.
a. How much workers to do with the equipment and materials in hand. b. Employers to pay more productive workers higher rate than others using a “scientifically correct “rate that would benefit both the company and workers.
. Thus the workers were urged to surpass their previous performance standards to earn more pay . Taylor called his plane the differential rate system. •Contributions of scientific management theory – The modern assembly line pours out finished products faster than Taylor could ever imagined.
– This production “Miracle” is just one legacy of scientific management. – In addition its efficiency techniques have been applied to many task in non industrial organizations ranging from fat food service to the training of surgeons. • Limitations of scientific management theory Although Taylor’s method led to dramatic increase in productivity and higher pay in number of instance workers and unions began to oppose his approach because they feared that working harder or faster would exhaust whatever work was available causing layoffs. – Moreover, Taylors system clearly meant that time was of the essence. – His critics objected to the speed up condition that placed undue pressure on employees to perform at faster and faster levels. – The emphasis on productivity and by extension profitability led some managers to exploit both the workers and customers.
As a result more workers joined unions and thus reinforced a pattern of suspicious and mistrust that shaded labor relations for decades. ? Henry L. Gannt Henry L. Gannt (1861-1919) worked with Taylor on several projects but when he went out on his own as a consulting industrial engineer, Gannt began to reconsider tailors insensitive systems. • Abandoning the differential rate system as having too little motivational impact Gannet came up with new idea.
• Every worker who finished days assigned work load win 50 percent bonus. Then he added a second motivation The supervisor would earn a bonus for each workers who reached the daily standard. Plus a extra bonus if all the workers reached it. •This Gantt reasoned would spur super wiser to train their workers to do a better job. •Every workers progress was rated publicly and recorded an individual bar charts • I black on days the worker made the standard in red when he or she fell below it. • Going beyond this Gantt originated a charting system for production was translated into eight languages and used through out the world. Starting in 1920 s it was use in Japan Spain and soviet union it also formed that the basis of two charting device which were developed to assist 1.
In planning, managing and controlling complex organization the critical path method (cpm) originated by DuPont, and program evaluation and review Technique (pert), developed by navy. 2. Lotus 1-2-3 is also a creative application of the giant chart. ” ? THE GILBRETHS Frank B. and Lillian M. Gilbreth(1968-1924) and (1878-1972) made their contribution to the scientific management movement as a husband and wife team.Lillian and Franck collaborated on fatigue and motion studies and focus on ways on promoting the individual workers welfare.
to them the ultimate aim of scientific management was to help workers reach their full potential as human beings •In their conception motion and fatigue were intertwined every motion that was eliminated reduced fatigue. • Using motion picture cameras they tried to find out the most economical motions for each task in order to upgrade performance and reduce fatigue. • CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY SCHOOL Scientific management was concerned with increasing the productivity of the shop and the individual worker.
– Classical organization theory grew out of the need to find guidelines for managing such complex organization as factories. ? HENRI FAYOL “THE FATHER OF MODERN MANAGEMENT THEORY” Henri fayol (1841-1925) is generally hailed as the founder of the Classical management school -not because he was the first to investigate managerial behavior but because he was the first to systematize it. Following are some of the principles that Fayol believed: . DIVISION OF LABOR: – The most people specialize the more efficiency they can perform their work. This principle is epitomized by the modern assembly line.
2. AUTHORITY & RESPONSIBILITY: – Managers must give orders so that they can get things done while this format give them a right to command managers will not always compel bedience unless they have Personal authority (such as relevant) expert as well. Fayol suggested that Authority & responsibility are related with the later arising from former. 3. DISIPLINE MEMBERS IN AN ORGANIZATION need to respect the rules and agreement that govern the organization . – To Fayol , discipline leadership at all levels of the organization fair agreements and judiciously enforced penalties for infractions. 4.
UNITY OF COMMANDS: – Each employee must receive instruction from one person, fayol believe that if employee reported. – More than one manager conflict in instruction and confusion in of authority would result. 5. UNITY OF DIRECTION : – Those operation with in the same organization that has the same objective should be directed by only one manager using one plan.For example the personnel department in the company should not have a two directors each with a different hiring policy. 6. SUBORDINATE OF INDIVIDUAL INTEREST TO COMMON GOOD: – In any undertaking the interest of employees should not take the precedence over the interest of organization as a whole 7.
REMUNERATION: – Compensation of work done should be common to both employees and employers. 8. CENTRALIZATION: – Decreasing the role of subordinates in decision making is centralization, increasing their role is decentralization. Fayol believed that the managers should retain the final responsibility but should at the same time give their subordinate enough authority to do the jobs properly. – The problem is finding the proper degree of centralization in each case. 9. THE HIERARCHY: – The line of authority in an organization should represent in the neat box and the line of chart runs in order of rank from top management and lowest levels of enterprise.
10. ORDER: – Materials and the order should be in the right place at the right time.People in particular should be in job or position they are most suited to.
11. EQUITY: – Managers should be fair and friendly to their subordinate. 12. STABILTY OF STAFF: – A high employee turnover rate undermines the efficient functioning of an organization. 13.
INITIATIVE: – Subordinate should be given the freedom to conceive and carry out their plans even though some mistake may result. 14. ESPRIT DE CROPS: – Promoting team spirit will give the organization a sense of unity. – To fayol even the small factor help to develop the spirit. He suggested for example the use of verbal communication instead of formal, written communication whenever possible. • THE BEHAVIORAL SCHOOL: – The behavioral school emerged partly because the classical approach did not archive sufficient production efficiency and workplace harmony. – To ‘managers’ frustration, – People did not always follow predicted or expected patterns of behavior.
– Thus there was increased interest in helping managers deal more effectively with a people side of their organizations. Several Theorists tried to strengthen with a people side Of their organization theory with a insights of sociology and psychology. – The human Relations movement – Human relations is frequently used as a general term to describe the ways in which managers interact with their employees. – When “employee management” simulates more and better work, the organization has a more and better work, the organization has effective human relations – When morale and efficiency deteriorate, its human relations are said to be ineffective . The human relations movement arose from early attempts to systematically discover the social and psychological factors that would create effective Human reaction. ? DIFFERENT TYPES OF MANAGEMET APPROACH ? THE CONTINGENCY APPROACH : The contingency approach some times called (situation approach) was developed by the managers, consultants and researchers who tried to apply the concepts of the major schools to the real life.
•When methods highly effective in one situation failed to work in other situation. • They sought an explanation. Why for example did an organization development work brilliantly in one situation and fail miserably in another. •Advocates Of the contingency approach had a logical answer to such question.
Result differ because •Situation differs. a technique that work in one case will not work in other. •According to the contagious technique the managers job is to find which technique will in a particular situation, under particular circumstances and at a particular time. •Best contributes to attainments of management goals, where workers need to encourage increasing productivity. For example a classical theorist may prescribe a new work simplification scheme.
The behavioral scientist may instead seek to create a psychologically motivating climate and recommend. •Some approach like job enrichment the combination of tasks that are different in scope and responsibility and allow the worker greater autonomy in making decisions but the manager trained in the contiguous approach will ask which ties the recourse are limited, work simplification would be the best solution, •However skilled workers driven by pride in their abilities. a job enrichment program might be more effective. The contingency approach represents an important turn in management theory, but it portals each set of organization relationship in its unique circumstances. ? SYSTEM APPROACH : • The system approach to management views the organizations as a unified, purposeful system composed of integral parts. • This approach gives managers A way of looking at the organization as a hole and as a part of the larger external environment.
• Systems theory tells us that the activity of any segment of an organization affects, in varying degree the activity of every other segment. Production managers in a manufacturing plant, for example, prefer long uninterrupted production runs of standardized products in order to maintain maximum efficiency and low costs. • Marketing managers on the other hand who want to offer customers quick delivery of a wide range of products would like a flexible manufacturing schedule that can fill special order on short notice.
• Systems oriented production managers make scheduling decisions only after they have identified the impact of these decisions on other department and on the entire organization. The point of system approach is that managers cannot wholly with in the traditional organization chart. •They must mesh their department with the whole enterprise. •To do that they have to communicate not only with other employees and departments, but frequently with representative of other organization as well. •Clearly, systems managers grasp the importance of the webs of business relationship to their efforts. ? DYNAMIC ENGAGEMENT APPROACH: •To emphasize the intensity of modern organizational relationships and the intensity time pressures that govern the relationship. We call this flurry of this new management theory the dynamic engagement approach.
•“Dynamic engagement in our term” •In times when theories are changing, it is often true that the last thing that happens is that happens is that someone assigns a name to the new theory. • We use dynamic engagement to convey the mood of current thinking and debate about the management and organizations. ——————————————————————X————————————————————–