What back. Unexpected recurrence of the frustration
What Is Aggression Aggressive behaviour develop where an individual is being praised or rewarded for being forceful. Being praised or rewarded for such action, can be an encouragement and reinforcement to perform such behaviour in the future. According to (Cherry) aggression is the continuous, unacceptable behaviour that can cause physical and psychological harm to people in general, or objects in out surroundings. It is a behaviour that is self ascertained with hostility and harmful tones and can be from a normal reaction to a threat, or can be abnormal because of provocation.Aggression can be referred to any behaviour that causes hostility, destruction, and/or violence related.
It has the potential to inflict injury, or damage the person or object to which it is or was intended. Most Psychologists define aggression as a behaviour that causes harm and injury to others. (Coie and Dodge, 1998) Aggressive behaviour is always challenging, but challenging behaviour is not always aggressive. They see aggression as a behaviour that is disruptive, antisocial, and annoying. Examples of aggression is physical assault, throwing objects, destroying properties, verbal threats and the behaviour of harming yourself. Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD) There are many theories of aggression, namely: Frustration-Aggression Theory Social Learning Theory Instinctive-Aggression Theory Relative Deprivation Theory Cue-Arousal Theory Excitation-Transfer Theory Deindividuation Frustration-Aggression Theory We become frustrated when we want to achieve a particular goal in our lives and we are unable to or we are being blocked from achieving our goals. This frustration then leads to aggressive behaviour, which will make us unhappy nd angry, and will lead to depression.
The closer you get to your goal, the greater the excitement and expectation of the pleasure, and the closer you are, the more frustrated you become by being held back. Unexpected recurrence of the frustration will increase aggression. (Changing Minds. Org.
) This aggressiveness can be a positive one because you can defend yourself in standing firmly in what you believe and taking a stand for what is right and true without doing any harm to anyone and in a respectful manner. (Changing Minds. Org. )Working on holidays and for longer periods of time will be frustrating but it will allow you to release the stress and frustration which is a healthy thing especially for your mind.
(2 know myself. com) You can become a hazard to society if your goals are not met and you are ready to be harmful and violent to the person who upsets you. (2 know myself.
com) Deindividuation When an individual joins a large group or crowd, it cause him or her to loose focus and his or her individual identity because that person wants to be like their friends or peers in that group or crowd.Loosing your true identity and taking on the identity of the group can make you commit acts of aggression and violence that you would not normally commit. You do not take responsibility for you actions. (people.
exeter. ac. uk/tpostmes/deindividuation.
html) “Deindividuation is a psychological state of decreased self-evaluation, causing you to behave abnormally. This individual looses self awareness. ” (Phil Zimbardo, 1969). It is a process whereby people lose their sense of socialised individual identity and engage in unsocialised, antisocial behaviours.
You can be conscious of your surroundings and take responsibility that others are watching you, and because of your awareness, you choose to be good in public. This is called Public Self- Awareness, and you can be easily identified. According to (Baron et al. , 2006), when teams play together at games, their performance is either enhanced by the presence of a supportive group or crowd or go bad in the presence of an unsupportive group or crowd. I think that people can be antisocial and unkind to others and decide that because they are in a crowd or a group, they can do whatever they desire.In groups, they can make decisions among themselves to rape and, or kill you. This behaviour would come about because there is no one to identify you to say you are the one who did this to me.
Individuals of such would go unpunished unless someone from that particular group is willing to speak out against what was done. Relative Deprivation Theory Based on what (Walker and Smith, 2001) said, relative deprivation is the knowledge gained of being deprived of something that he or she is entitled to get.Relative deprivation talks about people who are not satisfied when they compare their positions to others and find out that they have less than their peers or others. When people feel that they deserve more than they have got, this can cause frustration which will lead to aggression. This occurs when people compare what they have and it often occurs when conditions are improving and expectations are rising, but are not met.
It can be a temporary behaviour. People are not aroused to political action as a result not of absolute changes in their material conditions but of changes relative to the circumstances of those with whom they compare themselves”. Relative deprivation occurs where people or groups see themselves as being treated unfairly over others who see themselves as having similar belongings and deserve similar rewards. (W.
G. Runciman, Relative Deprivation and Social Justice, London, 1966). My opinion in this theory is that it recognizes the importance of individual differences and their self-worth and how they can contribute to society.
It may prove useful in explaining why people choose to be who they are, what they are worth and how they can make a change or difference in their environment. Because of individual differences, some people may be more sensitive than others. I think that it demoralizes a person’s character with the view that, that person is competent to do a certain duty or job, but because of his or her skin colour, address (from an innercity community) or lack of experience, unable to dress appropriately and in coordinating colours, that person is unfit for the job. This will bring out the aggression in the individual.Social Learning Theory Vygotsky feels that social learning is more important than social development.
According to him, every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level, first, between people and then inside the child. (Vygotsky, 1978). Many people learn by observing others’ behaviour and attitudes. “Most human behaviour is learned through observation of a role model.
When we observe others, we form ideas of how new behaviours are performed and later on we use it as a guide for our actions. (Albert Bandura, 1973). Observing someone’s behaviour can bring positive as well as negative influences. Social learning theory helps in understanding aggression and psychological abnormalities. It is used as a part of the training programs.
Children as well as adults will copy or mimic aggressive behaviour they see from others especially if that person is a member of the family. (Bandura, 1976; p206) The behaviour a model demonstrates, will be repeated by the one who sees him or her. The observer copies everything that his or her role model does and will even try to live like him or her.The individual is not interested in the behaviour of a model and therefore, doesn’t exercise any form of interest in that person. Excitation-Transfer Theory Excitation-transfer theory suggests that arousal from one situation can be transferred to another situation. According to Zillmann, it is not the process of social learning by exposure to the films which causes inflated aggression, but it is excitation transfer from the intervening stimulus to the initial arousal that is key. Based on the premise that arousal is not emotion, Dolf Zillmann (1996) developed an excitation-transfer theory hat considers summations and alternative integration of sympathetic excitation.
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