The in Edinburgh, Scotland. He extracted a cell
The basis of this particular article was a hypothesis test of cloning a sheep named Dolly. Dolly the sheep was created in 1996, she is not an normal sheep.
She was cloned by a six-year old sheep during the final stages of her pregnancy. Dolly was created by Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland. He extracted a cell from a oocyte (unfertilized egg) that was ready to be fertilized and placed it in the nucleus of another sheep. Wilmut and his staff removed the nucleus from the oocyte and then used electrical forces to fuse the udder cell of the other.They prepared 277 fused cells and the only one to survive was Dolly.
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The funding for the experiment came from the Roslin Institute its self. The hypothesis test is an experiment. They first attempted nucleus transfer, which was how Dolly was created.
They took an unfertilized egg and placed it in a nucleus which contains the DNA of a species that is bound to be cloned. There was no real cross section of population, there was a sheep and another sheep. The data that was collected about Dolly had a wide variety of success rates.
Her success disproved a lot of peoples thoughts. Many people believed that it was a conspiracy and that there had to have been another part to the cloning process, but then you have the people who believed that it was possible and believed that nucleus transfer could happen and that it would be a success. No one really could have predicted the expected outcome, and the sheep did not really have a choice whether to say yes or no. The data collectors and or analysts were not blinded they worked with Wilmut.In the article there was another study that was done on monkeys that had been done in Oregon, that used the laboratory techniques that had previously been tested on mice, cattle, and frogs.
In this study they took sperm from an adult monkey and allowed the fertilization process to happen in a dish. In this particular article there were not very many out side scientist commentating on the subject, there were some saying how remarkable Dolly was and how knowing that you can clone from nucleus transfer, and the cloning of the monkeys from embryonic cells, it has raised question through out the world of science, ethics, and politics.