Components it “for any security countermeasure to
Components of Physical Security Steven Looney Student ID: 4168626 SCMT397 Physical Security Professor Robert D Baker October 25, 2011 Components of Physical Security In physical security, there is no one measure that can fulfill all security needs for any one facility. Therefore, security measures must be designed in layers.
According to Lawrence Fennelly “physical security is the most fundamental aspect of protection, it is the use of physical controls to protect the premises, site, facility, building, or other physical asset” (2004).The many components or layers of security measures are what make up good physical security. The assets being protected and the nature of the threat to the asset will dictate the amount of physical security used to protect it “for any security countermeasure to be effective, the threat has to be clear. ”(Pepper 2010) Whether you are protecting warehouse goods or special nuclear material, layering security controls is the key to good physical security and protecting the asset.
The outer perimeter for a facility or business will depend on where it is located and the type of facility it is.For an office, building in a downtown environment the outer perimeter would be the outer wall of the building. If the facility is more spread out, for example, a chemical production plant, the outer perimeter is usually marked with a wall or fence on the property line, but the outer perimeter could also be a natural barrier as well, like a lake or river. Fences are the most common type of barrier used today. Fences can vary in size and how they are used, which in return affect the effectiveness and level of protection. A fence can be used in many different ways.It can be used as a barrier to restrict access to an area, and keep unauthorized persons out, or it could be used merely as a delay barrier design to slow an attacker or adversary down allowing responding security force members time to take actions to defend the facility.
Being reasonable in cost and reasonable easy to setup, the most common type of fence is the chain link fence. Unlike walls and other types of fences, chain link fences also give a clear view of both sides of the area. Enhancements can also be made to a fence to make it more effective.Razor wire or barbed wire can be attached to the top of the fence, making it more complicated for an intruder to climb over.
Alarm systems can also be attached to a fence. Any fence used as a perimeter barrier should be at least seven feet high or high enough it could not be easily scaled. A fence should also be close enough to the ground as to leave a gap big enough for an intruder to crawl underneath it. Fences should also be checked on a regular basis for damage to the fence fabric and washouts underneath it. Walls can also be constructed on the outer perimeter to form the first layer of physical security.Walls can be harder to penetrate than a fence, and you would not have to worry about washouts or intruders going underneath a wall. However, walls can cost more than a fence; also, visibility in the perimeter area is lowered.
With a wall, you cannot see the other side without some kind of assistance. Like with a fence, a wall can be enhanced with razor or barbed wire to make scaling the wall more difficult. When the wall of a building is used as the outer perimeter than that changes things.
Intruder climbing the wall are no longer looking to get to the other side, but intruders are looking to gaining access to the roof.In addition, monitoring and controlling access at all building openings becomes critical. The outer perimeter can also have a vehicle barrier as well. Vehicle barrier system may be necessary for facilities that run a high risk of a vehicle attack of some sort, for example, a nuclear power plant. Vehicle barriers can be integrated into the perimeter fence or further inward, wherever it would be more effective, the different types of vehicle barriers are; aircraft cable, blocks, walls, and natural barriers like ditches.Most nuclear facilities have good examples of vehicle barriers in place.
Most nuclear facilities must protect against a vehicle carrying a set amount of explosives. Therefore, a vehicle barrier system must be a part of their physical security to protect the facility. Natural barriers can also be effective as perimeter barriers. Natural barriers are natural land marks used as a perimeter barrier, such as lakes, rivers, cliffs, and difficult terrain. The effectiveness of a natural barrier depends on the type of natural barrier it is, and how it is used in physical security measures.Therefore, Lawrence Fennelly offers this example to explain how the type and usage of a natural barrier can affect the effectiveness of the barrier, “a body of water may be very effective in keeping pedestrian traffic away from your property but not very effective at keeping boat traffic from your property” (2008). Man-made barriers can also be placed to enhance the natural barrier, like in the example a wall or fence can be placed in the area to keep boat traffic away from the property.
Just like man-made barriers, natural barriers can also be overcome, therefore they should be monitored at all times.The facility grounds between the perimeter and the assets being protected can also be used as part of the physical security of that facility. These areas can be very effective as buffer zones if kept cleared, and monitored. Buffer zones can also be very effective for facilities that have to protect against forced entry by armed adversaries.
These buffer zones create open areas that adversaries must cross to reach their objective. By moving into open areas, the security force will have a better chance of neutralizing the adversaries before any objectives are reached and the assets or integrity of the facility is jeopardized.Lighting can be very effective when used right to enhance the physical security of facilities. According to P. Rosenberg “You should design protective or security-lighting systems on a facility-by-facility basis. There is not a one-size-fits-all approach. Each situation requires careful study to provide the best visibility, prevention of illegal entry and detection of intruders.
You should not use protective lighting as a psychological deterrent only. ”(2000)When adequate lighting is used, likely intruders are less likely to enter the area in fear of being seen.Also with adequate lighting, all areas around the perimeter and inside the perimeter can be easily observed. Lighting should always be placed inside of the perimeter and be placed high enough to prevent tampering, and if tampering is done it would be deliberate in nature. Also all lighting should be protected in some way to prevent damage or destruction of the lights. All lighting used as physical security should be connected to some kind of backup power supply to prevent losing the lights in an event where the main power is lost.
Just like in the case of all other physical security measures, lights must be checked on a regular basis, for operability and all discrepancies fixed as soon as possible. One issue that must be taken into consideration when it comes to lighting and physical security is the placement of the lights and the direction they are facing in conjunction with the placement of security force members. If this issue is not taken into consideration the lights could create glares and blind spots for the security personnel and cameras making them less effective if needed. With any good physical security measures, surveillance must be a key factor.In reference to Lawrence Fennelly “surveillance is accomplished by using security guards or surveillance cameras” (2008). Surveillance using security guards can involve security patrols, fixed posts, or a combination of both.
Security patrols unlike fixed posts can cover larger areas. Also using patrols will involve fewer personnel than it would to cover the same areas with fixed posts. Security patrols should also be walked in random patterns, in case they are being observed.
A would be intruder that picks up on a security guards patrol patterns would know exactly when the guard is not observing and when to make their entry.With fixed post, even thou surveillance is continuous; security guards may get bored or fall asleep. This has been an issue for some time now, the most recent incident being the Peach Bottom incident, where security guards fell asleep at a nuclear power plant, which could have jeopardized the security of the plant. Since security personnel cannot be in more than one place at the same time, surveillance cameras can be very effective when it comes to surveillance. One security guard can watch multiple areas at the same time utilizing cameras. Having cameras also gives the facility the option to record events as they unfold.There are many benefits with recording for the company.
Just to name one if the company decides to use video recording equipment the footage can be used in court as evidence. Sometimes the weakness may outweigh the strengths when considering a camera system. Camera systems are costly to install and maintain.
This alone can make a camera system a low priority to some companies. Another weakness of a camera system is that it cannot respond to an incident, as a security guard would, they can only give the operator a view of the area. “And finally, it all comes back again to lighting.
Recommendations are to add some kind of security lighting to the camera system to get the best image possible in all conditions. ” (Poremba, 2011) Alarms are another layer used to protect a facility. “An intruder alarm system comprises of a number of discrete components integrated as a system. In general, such components include an alarm control panel with a central processor, input and output interfaces, power supply and battery back-up. In addition to the control panel, an alarm system will also comprise various types of detectors, including PIR, microwave, and door reed switch and so on.Finally, a user interface as a keypad or remote radio frequency identification device, an external audible warning device, external visible light, and, for a monitored or back-to-base alarm, some form of external communication.
”(Brooks, 2009) Alarms are important to a facility because it is what draws the security personnel’s attention to the troubled areas. Around the perimeter of a facility, the alarm systems are usually a motion detection devise, or intrusion detection systems. A motion detection device is a device that detects motion in a certain area. The most common type is a microwave system.An intrusion detection system detects if a certain area is penetrated or trying to be penetrated, the most common type of intrusion detection system in an E-field system, which consist of wires running between poles around the perimeter.
Alarm systems can be used to enhance physical barriers both inside and around the outer perimeter. Even thou alarm systems can be costly to install and maintain in working order, they could be more cost efficient to operate in the long run. This is due to the fact that an alarm system once installed can eliminate the need for some of the security personnel all together.Personnel will still, however, be needed at the facility to respond to the alarms, and rectify any problem there may be. Without personnel to respond, an alarm system is worthless.
Furthermore, security personnel may also be needed to operate the alarm system. The inner layers of physical security, in some incidences many be the same as the outer layers. In some cases, the outer perimeter may not lead up to a building, but does lead up to an area that is critical to the facility and must be protected or a protected area. In this case, the outer perimeter leads into a Controlled Area, which leads into a Protected Area.
All security measure outside of the Protected Area would be considered the outer layers, and all security measures inside the Protected Area would be the inner layers. Even thou some of the inner layers of physical security in the Protected Area will be the same as the outer layers, there are some that will differ. Some examples of inner layers include, but are not limited to, lock and key controls, access controls, and security personnel. Locks are a simple and low cost way to deny access to persons that do not have authorization to enter certain areas.
Locks date back some 4,000 years ago to the ancient Egyptians, who developed a crude lock constructed of wood and other weaker materials. ”(Ahrens, 2007) There are many different types of locks. All of they with their own purpose and level of security they provide.
Any lock can be picked given the right tools, the know-how, and enough time to do so. According to S. Ahrens “The most recognized threat to any type of lock and keyway is lock picking. Lock picking involves opening a lock without the key and without damaging the lock.
” (2007) The level of security a lock provides depends on how it is made internally.Determining what type of lock to use will depend on the use of the lock, why the lock is needed and the assets being protected. So if a lock was used to secure special nuclear material and classified documents, than you would probably not want to use a cheaply made lock that would be easily picked or forced open. But if the lock was being used on something in the nature of a gate on a delay barrier, than you probably would not want to waste money on an expensive high security lock. Therefore, picking the right lock to use could mean the difference between protecting the assets and the failure to protect the assets.Another big problem with locks is personnel failing to safeguard the locks and keys or combinations. A good key control program is vital to must physical security protection plans, according to Lawrence Fennelly “poor key control can render any locking device useless” (2008).
All keys should be documented, and signed out to personnel at all times. In addition, security key should never be duplicated or loaned out without authorization first. Master key should only be issue out on a limited basis, and keep in a controlled area so they cannot be easily accessible by personnel other than security.Issuing of the keys should never be on a permanent basis, and inventory of all keys, locks, and combinations should be done on a regular basis. If any discrepancy should arise then all locks or lock cores, keys, and combinations should be changed as soon as possible to prevent any incidents.
Access control is one of the most important components to good physical security. Lawrence Fennelly states, “Ensuring that only authorized personnel and vehicles enter the facility reduces the risk of loss or damage to all assets. ”(2004) Limiting access points into the facility or areas within the facility is necessary when access control is an issue.
By limiting access points, you limit the areas that an intruder can try to access the facility without causing alarms on the perimeter. Controlling access into a facility can be accomplished in a few different ways. One way is to use a badge and reader system. Key card badges can be issued to the workers of the facility, which will allow them access to the areas necessary for them to do their jobs. These systems can be setup with the doors and area access points throughout the facility to limit access through them. They can also be setup so that only certain employees can access certain areas.In addition, this system can be combined with an alarm system like a Balanced Magnetic Switch or a Latch Position Switch; this will help control access through the doors of the facility without having a security guard at the door continuously.
This system can also be integrated into some kind of scanning device, which will require the employee to use a hand scanner, finger print scanner, or some other kind of scanner in conjunction with the key card badge to verify that they have access to the area. However, these methods are not fool proof and can be bypassed if the area is not monitored by security personnel.These systems are very costly to purchase, install, and maintain, but are usually worth the cost. Like all other components that make up physical security determining if a facility needs this kind of access control and which type would be best for the facility depends on the assets that are being protected and the budget the facility has to spend on security measures. Security guards are the heart and soul of any physical security plan at a facility. Depending on the facilities needs and the type of assets the facility has will determine the duties and responsibilities of the security guards. In addition, these actors will also determines if the facility has unarmed security guards, sometimes called Watchmen, or armed guards.
Even thou there is not a lot of difference between the abilities of the two, the difference between armed and unarmed could make the difference between protecting the assets. Unarmed security guards can do everything an armed guard can do except use deadly force to protect the assets. In most facilities unarmed guards are used to control access, preform searches and patrol areas throughout the facility.
Unarmed security personnel can still protect an asset but just not at the level of an armed security officer.Training for unarmed guard positions is usually not as long as an armed guard, but this is usually due to the fact that armed guards are required to qualify on some kind of shooting course before they are permitted to carry a weapon while preforming their duties. Armed security guards are usually used to protect the most important asset, for example, nuclear power plants and armored cars usually have armed security guards.
According to Lawrence Fennelly “if you want to create a presence of serious security, there is nothing like an armed guard at the corporate lobby to give that impression” (2004).Armed guards are usually more highly trained because of the weapons training, so can cost the company more to have compared to unarmed guards. But the use of armed security may be a requirement placed upon the facility by the government or some other agency in order to insure the protection of the assets of the facility.
In conclusion, W. Bakr and A. Hamed states, “The ultimate goal of a Physical Protection System is to prevent the accomplishment of overt or covert malevolent actions. Typical objectives are to prevent sabotage of critical equipment, deter theft of assets or information from within the facility, and protect people. (2009) Physical security is only effective when security measures are setup into layers to protect the asset. Usually only one concept will not provide the protection needs of a facility. Therefore, the facility must integrate many security concepts to accomplish protect of their assets.
References Ahrens, S. A. (2007). Locked…But Is It Secure?. Government Security, 6(3), 16-18.
Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Bakr W. F. and Hamed A. A. Journal of Physical Security, (2009) 3(1), 3 Retrieved on Oct. 19, 2011 Brooks, D.
J. (2009).Security Journal, 24, 101-117. Retrieved on Oct. 19, 2011 Fennelly, L. (2004). Effective Physical Security (3rd ed).
Burlington, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Poremba, S. (2011). Neither Rain Nor Dark of Night Will Stop Security. Security: Solutions for Enterprise Security Leaders, 48(9), 80-83.
Retrieved from EBSCOhost.. Rosenberg, P. (2000). facility security:keeping them away. grounds maintenance, 35(10), 24. Retrieved on Oct.
19, 2011 Pepper S. (2010) Journal of Physical Security, 4(1), 2 Retrieved on Oct. 19, 2011