2.1. Introduction
Literature review intends among others things, to refine the research ideas, demonstrate awareness of the current state of knowledge on the subject, its limitations and how the research fits in the wide context. Gills and Johnston, (1997) as cited by Saunders et al., (2005). The fact that, knowledge does not exist in vacuum has made the researcher to visit as much literature on sited research problem. This chapter is divided into two parts; part one deal with theoretical review and part two is reveals the empirical literature on various studies concerning training program implementation. It reviews literature and studies issues related to research topic, i.e. factors affecting implementation of the training programme in MOFED on training issues. The purpose is to try to compare such literatures and studies or theories with the actual practice in MOFED. Recognizing that the organization is only as effective as its members and work teams, MOFED supports orientation, learning, training and development efforts designed for its staff to:-
Provide practical information in a timely manner; Enhance the skills an employee uses in the current position; Expand an employee’s existing knowledge and skills to prepare for a modification or change in the current position; Broaden an employee’s existing knowledge and skills to prepare for current and future needs of the organization; encourage, respect and foster an appreciation of individual intellectual and education-background differences and encourage an employee to pursue personal educational and professional developmental goals.

2.2. Theoretical Literature Review
Training is defined as a process of assisting employees to acquire or develop knowledge, skills, techniques and attitudes and experiences which enable them to make most effective contributions to their combined efforts, to meet organizational objectives. (Chruden and Shermun 1976). The rapid changes in Technology have created knowledge gap which increased the importance of training on one hand and social economic advancement and individual needs have instigated the training of manpower in organizations. Thus it has added more the importance and implications on training activities than before. Apart from these training activities have also gained special recognition as organizations activities are growing, hence expanding the knowledge requirement. ibid
In so being, one has to look at the organizations futuristic objectives to see if there are needs for Training Assessment, design and Implementation of the whole process. Jain, and Saakshi, (2005), pointed out that the purpose of training is to achieve a change in the behavior of those trained and to enable them to do their jobs in a better way. In industrial situation, this means that the trainees will acquire manipulative skills, technical knowledge, problem-solving ability or attitudes.
According to Armstrong, (2006) “Training is the systematic development of the knowledge skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task on the job. To him training involves learning of various kinds and in various situations. Learning may be something that the trainee wants to do for himself or it may be necessary to provide it for him.
A survey of literature shows that Training and Development are variously defined in a narrow as well as in a broad sense. Jackson and Schuler (2000) also state training as the act of improving competencies needed today or in the future. Mathews, (2004) argues that training is concerned with providing an individual with the opportunity to learn what he/she needs in order to do their job more effectively. Also management training is considered to be a process of enhancing an employee’s capacity to handle greater responsibilities successfully. (Singh and Vinnicombe, 2003).
Training is more than just building the skills and knowledge of each individual of any team for their own personal benefit. It goes beyond and intended to organizational holistic change. According to Kelly, (2011) Companies that have invested in training report the following benefits: First; Improved recruiting; Today’s job applicant is looking for an environment that fosters personal growth and development. For many job hunters, training in every bit is as important as the compensation package. An effective training program allows you to cast a wider net by hiring people with the right attitude and developing the skills can come later. Secondly; Higher retention;
When people know that a company believes in their personal growth, they are likely to stay with that company for a longer period of time. Lastly, Better output; the lower your turnover rate, the more productive, enthusiastic and motivated your workforce. Employees will pack their new knowledge and skills into everything they design, produce and service. According to Kelly, (2011) Training will be effective only when certain conditions are met: First, Buy-in from the top; without a commitment from top management, training will be nothing more than a charade. All layers of the company must believe that training is a process and not a singular learning event. They’ve got to pony up the cash and be committed to developing a learning atmosphere. But getting support is more than just a line item in the budget. Top corporate leaders must embrace training enthusiastically in corporate communications, business plans and individual performance goals. If personal development is part of the formal appraisal, your staff will know that a direct correlation exists between training, acquiring new skills and their career success.
Secondly, Alignment with corporate goals; Training should fit hand-in-glove with the company’s strategic plan. In fact, if the goal-setting is done correctly and stretches corporate performance to new heights, it should be next to impossible to meet the new objectives without upgrading the skill set of your workforce. Training should help employees develop both technical mastery, as well as interpersonal skills such as effective communication, dispute resolution, quality management and team building.
Thirdly, needs analysis; Designing a training regimen should begin with an accurate assessment of what you do well and what needs improvement. Begin by documenting current performance and compare that against what could be. Get help from your team. What are the elements that are holding your team back? What skills do your people lack to do the job? How is their lack of skill and/or knowledge affecting performance? The goal is to demonstrate that with the acquisition of new skills through training, employees will enhance their job performance.
Fourthly, Delivery options; There’s an old saying, “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.” Apply this to your learning environment. There are many ways to deliver training – classroom, self-paced instruction, mentoring, computer-assisted and web-enabled, as well as special project opportunities. Choose the most effective delivery method for your team given your objectives. Lastly; Follow-up. After the completion of the training, you must provide an opportunity to apply the skills. People cannot successfully learn the skills without practicing on the job. You also want to talk to each employee to ensure the training was valuable and provided them with the skills they needed. This also provides an opportunity for you to underscore your commitment to training and to solicit any future training needs.
In order to conceptualize the scope of training, Gupta (2007) considers the following as characteristics of an ideal training and development function. First, it should be designed with clear scope and objectives. In this case the training needs assessment (TNA) exercise should be conducted to establish skill gap and performance standards.
Second, it should have proper reinforcements to continuously improve the performance capacity of an individual employee; this is supported by Skinner’s behavioral modification model as quoted by Gupta (2007), which stipulates that ‘when behavior is repeatedly rewarded, it becomes permanent part of one’s personality. Third, it should be role-specific and involve practice; it helps employees do their present jobs better and skills that are practiced often are better learned and less easily forgotten. Fourth, an effective Training and Development function should be carefully planned in terms of reading materials, learning duration, and instructors.
Fifth, it should be transparent to all employees at all levels. Employees should be aware of selection criteria of trainees and trainers, preparation of relevant teaching materials, training room and accommodation of courses and actual conduction of courses. They feel responsive to training programmes when they are well informed. Lastly, it should be evaluated. Training consumes both organization’s time and money, therefore it is important to determine how well it was conducted (i.e. trainees feedback). Evaluation reports establish whether the organization has derived more-or-less the same value from the amount of money and time invested in the programme.
2.2.1 Training
According to Michel Armstrong (2001), Training is a systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job. According to the Edwin B Flippo (1984) Training is the act of increasing knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. The term training indicates the process involved in improving the attitudes, abilities and skills of the employees to perform specific jobs. Training helps in improving old talents and developing new ones. Successful candidates placed on the jobs need training to perform their duties effectively and efficiently.
Employees need continued training even after they have worked for the organization for years. Training shows employees how to do the basic of their jobs and they help them improve their skills. It also helps employees adapt to changes in the workplace, Certo (2006).The department or management proposing the training begins the planning stage by setting objectives. The training objectives should meet the criteria for effective objective. They should be written, measurable, clear, specific and challenging but achievable.
They should also support the organization goals by helping develop the kind of employees who can make the organization more competitive. Training may also take into account the interest and motivation levels of employees as well as their skills. Training also has a significant effect on employee performance. Organizations can create and enhance the quality of the current employees by providing comprehensive training and development. Indeed, research indicates that investments in training employees in problem-solving, teamwork and interpersonal relations result in beneficial firm level outcomes, Russell and Powers (1985).
Motivational and environmental influences of training effectiveness have received little attention. This analysis integrates important motivational and situational factors from organizational behavior theory and research into a model which describes how trainees’ attributes and attitudes may influence the effectiveness of training, Raymond (1986). According to Trever (1991), training should improve the staff skills and change their attitudes towards work. Training is a motivating factor and can enable the work force to get to higher levels. Organizations that employ training have been known to achieve higher mission performance. Training also bridges the gap of work performance versus the work goals attainment. There is therefore a continual need for the process of staff development, and training to fulfill an important part of this process. Training should be viewed therefore as an important part of the process of total quality management.
2.2.2 Human Resource Management
It is necessary for the organization to restructure and reinforce the human assets to adapt itself to changes. Business does not have unanimous methodologies for evaluation and it depends on suitability, Bivainis and Morkvenas (2008). It is of great importance to any organization to strive for the development of its employees as esteemed members of the organizational management team. For the development of human asset, ‘training’ becomes the base.
It is the view of Beardwell and Holden (1993) that Human Resource Management concepts such as commitment to the company and the growth in the quality movement have led senior management teams to realize the increased importance of training, employee development and long-term education. Such concepts require not only careful planning but a greater emphasis on employee development.
For any organization to function effectively, it must have materials, supplies, money and equipment, ideas about the services or products to offer those who might use its outputs and finally employees, who are the human resource, to run the enterprise. Armstrong (1996), Human Resource Management has emerged as a major function in most organizations and is the focus for a wide-ranging debate concerning the nature of the contemporary employment relationships.
2.2.3 Job Training and Employee Performance
Studies by Cole (1997) defined training as a learning process which is aimed at impacting knowledge and skills to enable the employee to execute their task better. This will help the employee to acquire new information in relation to new technological knowhow and other external forces emerging. Training has been recognized as a central role of management by leading researchers. It is for this reason still, that the study seeks to establish whether job training should be based on accumulated seniority or extra relevant qualifications and whether based on the right criterion, leads to employee performance. Doeringer & Piore (1971), say that in order to develop skills and abilities specific to the company, its significant from an organizational perspective to train employees in accordance with their company¡¯s specific skills and abilities.
Organizations can create and enhance the quality of the current employees by providing comprehensive training and development. Indeed, research indicates that investments in training employees in problem-solving, teamwork and interpersonal relations result in beneficial firm level outcomes, Russell and Powers (1985). Jacoby (1984) and Morishima (1986), indicate that training opportunities increase the level of individual performance and organizational commitment among workers in their career advancement, influences the workers behaviors and attitudes such as motivation and organizational commitment, particularly in the case of stable employment. In upholding the views of Jacoby (1984) and Morishima (1986), Pigors and Myers (1981), submitted that training should encourage those employees who make a successful effort to increase their knowledge or skill. Bramley (1991) indicates that training is a component of staff development and if carried out effectively, it can lead to improvement in the performance of employees.
According to Bogonko & Saleemi (1997), training is effective only when it is properly planned and effectively executed. Training methods must be appropriate to the level of employees, the nature of tasks and purpose of training. The effectiveness of a training program should be evaluated so that necessary improvements may be made in it from time to time. Hence, training must be carefully planned and evaluated and employees must be purposively selected.
The Training Policy Document for Telkom Orange, points out that in its training policy, that all staff shall be encouraged through training to develop their potential and enhance their efficiency on the job in the present and in the future which agrees with Buckley and Caples definition of training as .a planned and systematic effort to modify or develop knowledge, skills or attitude through learning experience, to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities¡±. Although most of the empiricism posits that training is a correlate of individual job performance, few are on the benefits as a motivator and none is in the context of Telkom Orange, a gap this study sought to fill. All employees, regardless of their previous training, education and experience, must be given further training. This is because the competence of workers will never last forever, due to such factors as external and technological changes.

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2.2.4 Importance of Training
Training helps in socially, intellectually and mentally developing an employee, which is very essential in facilitating not only the level of performance but also the development of personnel in any organization, Oatey (1970)
Staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization, Adeniyi (1995). He also indicated that some of the advantages for training are; job functionality, morale, improved quality of life, efficiency, high skilled employees, keeping up with technology and optimum utilization of resources.
2.2.5 Methods of Training
Many training techniques are created almost every year in line with the rapid technological advancement. Selection of methods usually depends on the following criteria: type of training intended, the trainees selected the objectives of the training program and the training method. Training is a situational process that is why no single method is right for every situation. (Chinomnso, 2014)
According to Blanchard and Thacker, (1998) training methods could be classified as cognitive and behavioral approaches. Cognitive methods provide verbal or written information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, or provide the rules for how to do something. These types of methods can also be called as off- the -job training methods. On the other hand, behavioral methods allow trainee to practice behavior in real or simulated fashion. They stimulate learning through behavior which is best for skill development
and attitude change.


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