CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Internal Marketing According to Kotler and Armstrong
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
According to Kotler and Armstrong (2014), the role of internal marketing in an organization is to motivate and orient its employees and helping service people to work as a team to meet customer expectation. Kotler (2008) also stated that holistic marketing incorporates internal marketing by ensuring everyone in the organization appreciate the principles, particularly to senior management. In addition, the work of internal marketing is the following: hiring, training, and motivating employees who are willing to serve customer. Marketing components must work together and aligned from the customer’s view, there should have a vertical alignment with senior management and horizontal alignment with other departments.
Furthermore, Ioanna (2002) has also other definition of internal marketing, which is a management process through which an organization enters in a dialogue with wide internal audiences while Zimuto (2013) supported the earlier definition but should focus with the staff attention on internal works that could be changed to enhance external environmental performance.
Moreover, Shaw (2011) point out another definition of internal marketing to an individual as being a market or being a market oriented firm. It focuses on what to happen, why it needs to happen and who should be involved in making it happen. The study also found out that senior management provides information if what marketing is, so that they can understand and why it should have implemented and highlights the pros and cons that an organization may experience if internal marketing implemented.