CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies related to
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies related to (state the topic or problem). Literature and studies presented in this chapter contains information, concepts, theories and findings that are contributory and fitting for the selection and development of the theoretical framework of the study.
Definition of Gender
According to World Health Organization, gender refers to the characteristics of men and women who are socially constructed such as the roles, norms and the relationships of and between groups of men and women. The appropriate norms and behaviors are taught to most people born either male or female. Exclusion and discrimination are often faced by those individuals or groups that do not fit on the established gender norms. It was also mentioned that this affects their health adversely. The article also explains that the roles, norms and relations influence their susceptibility to different diseases and health conditions.
The article “Understanding Gender” focuses on the dimensions of gender, the difference of gender and sexual orientation. Body, identity and expression are the dimensions of gender. The first gender dimension is body. Bodies are gendered based on the cultural expectation context. It was also indicated that the masculinity and femininity was equated with certain physical attributes. The second gender dimension is identity. It is about the internal experience of naming a certain person’s gender. This dimension of gender emphasize that gender is a spectrum and it is not only limited to possibility of two. The last gender dimension is expression. It refers to the way of showing a certain person’s gender to the world through mannerisms, clothing and hairstyles. The difference between sexual orientation and gender are its distinct aspects of identity. Gender is the physical aspect and sexual orientation is the interpersonal aspect.
The article entitled “What is Gender”, states that gender refers to “cultural sex” because masculinity and femininity are characterized by cultures differently. The individual level of gender refers to the individual itself, specifically the way human beings create identities. On the other hand, structural level of gender is about the activities of human that refers to the assignment of gender characteristics to whole areas of human activity and institutions, disregarding the fact of whether it is carried out by men or women. For the symbolic level of gender, it explains that gender symbolism refers to the masculinity and femininity attribution of connotations to the phenomena that do not refer to the sex-related differences. Moreover, it was also mentioned that gender is language and its essential fact is the implication of the connotation, “female” or “male” that creates an impression of a dichotomous structure that carries evaluative and hierarchical position.
Preferences of Men and Women on a Product
According to The Statistics Portal (2016), a survey was conducted on all women who are aged 18 years and above in the United Kingdom on January 2016. The survey aims to explore women’s attitudes towards perfumes and fragrances with the question “What is your attitude towards fragrance/perfume?” Majority of participants reported using a type (floral, oriental and citrus) accounting for 45%, whereas 27% mentioned preferring to try different or unusual fragrances. Twelve percent of the respondents are happy to try celebrity fragrance brands. While niche or artisan fragrances showed the smallest share at 9%.
Marina Ljubisavljevic conducted a study on 2016 entitled “Psychology of Perfumes.” The study shows how women are attracted to different fragrances according to their personality. Jellinek and later Tisserand suggested that introverted people and emotionally stable are more inclined to choose strong floral oriental perfumes, like Opium by YSL. These women were instantly comforted by the ingredients and seek emotional refuge from the storm unfolding outside. However, emotionally ambivalent women are inclined to choose fresh floral perfumes from the likes of Poppy EDP by Coach. Since these perfumes are toned and softer, these women do not let the perfume do all the talking about them. Due to their unstable nature, they are viewed as emotionally distant because water always flows and changes; however, these women care more than they care to show the world. On the other hand, women with extroverted personalities and emotionally stable usually select the woody fresh perfumes like Fatale Intense by Agent Provocateur or Polo by Ralph Lauren, Jellinek suggests. These women fall under the air element category, meaning that they are outspoken and innovative, open minded, natural born motivators and are the life of the party.
According to a Lifespan Study, 113 women across six different age groups, from teenagers to women aged 60+ (between 17-22 respondents per group) were interviewed using the “Fragrance Questionnaire”. From this, one of the results shows that majority of the respondents (3/4) were reported using environmental fragrance. Women who are in their 30’s has the heaviest usage that has 95% followed by women who are in their 40’s and 50’s which has 85%. While the age group to use environmental fragrance least were the 60+ group which is less than a half. Among women who used environmental fragrances, the number of products used by any individual ranged from 1 to 4, with the product types being air fresheners, incense, candles and others such as aromatherapy, potpourri, or oils. The research design used in the study was descriptive design. The study was conducted through an interview and questionnaire in order to fully understand the fragrance behavior of every women. On the other hand, descriptive analysis was employed in the study.
According to Frank Muscarella, Luciana Arantes and Stephen Koncsol (2011), heterosexual men preferred to use musky-spicy type of scent. This was chosen from the list of 18 commonly found scents in perfumes and colognes. These lists of scents were divided into two major groups: a musky-spicy group and a floral-sweet group wherein heterosexual men preferred scents that are categorized in musky-spicy group rather than the floral-sweet group. The research design used in the study was correlational design. It examined the common fragrances in order to determine if it can be divided into categories. Also, gender and sexual orientation are also examined to know the differences about scent preferences. Lastly is the comparison between heterosexual men, women, gay men and lesbians are examined to determine if the pattern of the odor preferences in gay men and lesbians is better explained by the inversion theory. The study was conducted in three different ways. First, an announcement emailed to all Psychology classes at Barry University. Second, the study was advertised on two websites. Lastly, it was also advertised on some social networking sites. Moreover, the data analysis used in the study was exploratory analysis.
Marina Ljubisavljevic (2016) stated that perfume has superpowers because according to studies, it can stimulate the conscious mind, stabilize and modify the emotional state. However, the Psychology of Perfume suggests that there are some factors which can trigger people to buy perfume. One of those factors is image. Unlike men, women are drawn to the scent of the perfume. Therefore, the container and packaging of the perfume are strong factors of men’s preferences in choosing a perfume.
According to SmitaGoorah, YogeshRusseeawon, Satish K. Ramchurn (2014), children are most likely to be one of the frequent users of topical mosquito repellent. They are prone to various mosquito borne diseases and mosquito bites mainly because they are physically active and they tend to do outside activities such as playing. They are advised to use mosquito repellent on regular basis. Tourists are also one of the common users of TMRs (Topical Mosquitoes Repellents) especially if they are going to tropical country where mosquitoes are common. They use TMR to protect themselves from the harmful diseases that they might get while travelling. The research design used in the study was descriptive design. An online electronic questionnaire was conducted in order to provide a convenient access to students on obtaining information about the users and non-users of TMR. Also, a survey was conducted to all students in University of Mauritius. The data analysis used in the study was descriptive analysis.
In the journal entitled, “Factors influencing the use of topical repellents: implications for the effectiveness of malaria elimination strategies” (2015), it indicates the factors that influence the use of topical repellent. From the survey, most of the people answered that they agreed on using repellent while some of them disagree in using topical repellent. Based from the study, men are mainly the target of mosquitoes because most of them perform different activities in forest. As researchers investigate, mosquitoes are attracted on different scents of perfume or cologne. The scent produced from sweat also attracts the mosquitoes. In this case, a repellent is strongly recommended for every man to keep them protected. The study is consisted of mixed-methods design, which combines quantitative and qualitative research methods. A participant observation, open-ended interview and informal conversation were conducted in qualitative study. While in quantitative study, two surveys were used. Furthermore, the data analysis employed in the study was descriptive analysis.
Gideon Koren, Doreen Matsui and Benoit Bailey conducted a study on 2003 entitled “DEET-based insect repellents: safety implications for children and pregnant and lactating women.” The study shows that women are concerned about using mosquito repellents such as DEET especially when they are pregnant or lactating because it might affect the condition of the baby. A study was conducted in Thailand, where 897 pregnant women was put in a test to know if 1.7 g/d of topical repellent that is applied regularly will have an effect on the growth and development of the baby. The result states that it does not have an effect on most of the mothers. The research design used in the study was descriptive design. A review about the available evidences on the safety and effectiveness of DEET-based products was conducted on the study. On the other hand, the data analysis used in the study was descriptive analysis.
Factors that affect the Interest Level of Consumers on a Product
According to Amira Srour Abusrour (2016), the study investigated on what factors affect the consumer’s choice of perfume products in Famagusta, North Cyprus. The researchers considered different factors such as perfume’s price, brand, packaging, quality, promotional activities, recommendations and impulse buying. Based on the results of the study conducted by the researchers, most of these factors have significant effect to the consumer’s purchase decision of perfume. In addition, the results showed no difference in purchasing perfume between the male and female consumers in Famagusta. However, when it comes to the recommendations, there is a difference between the effects of recommendation from people and recommendation from the internet, for it affects younger males and females in Famagusta because of their significant use of technology. The research design used in the study was descriptive survey design that aims to clarify the factors affecting the consumers’ choice of perfume products. A questionnaire was used in order to conduct the study. The data analysis employed in the study was descriptive analysis.
According to Clate Mask (2016), the article indicates the different factors that attract the interest of the consumers on a product or service provided by an existing business venture. Clate Mask then identified these factors. First, the location of the business. It tackles on what community does it attend to and how to cater the needs of potential consumers. Second, the product caters consumer’s problem. Third, defining the entrepreneur’s expertise to show credibility. Lastly is showing personality and authenticity that creates a solid customer relationship.
According to Anneke van Aswegen (2015), the article depicts how gender affects the interest level of the consumers based on their buying or consuming behavior. It indicates that the brain has something to do with the consuming behavior of men and women. There are also characteristics that a certain gender possess such as men being utilitarian that makes them spend less, and women being hedonic that makes them explore more in purchasing a product. Moreover, woman recognizes reasons and motivations to buy a product while men asks for other’s experience on a particular product.
A study conducted by Biljana Panin, Hamid El Bilali and Sinisa Berjan on 2015 stated that the research specified the main factors that influence the consumers’ interest for Protected Designation of Origin or PDO products in Serbia. The methods that the researchers used to gather information is Likert scale. Every scale has five categories and the researchers chose two products that are registered Serbian PDO products and are present in the diet habits of Serbian population. According to the results of their research, there is high chance that people will consume and buy PDO products since the respondents had said that they will buy the PDO products even if the cost is high. From this, they determined that eating habits, awareness to PDO scheme, typical products and monthly income can be factors that influence the customer’s interest based on the reasoning of the respondents. It says that they will buy these products with the reasons: some PDO products are present in the Serbian Diet, quality displayed on the labels, high quality and has high income or has the ability to consume. The research design used in the study was descriptive design. The study was conducted through an field survey, questionnaires and two case studies in order to have basis on the research. Descriptive analysis was employed in the data analysis of the study.
Clayton M. Christensen, Intuit’s Scott Cook and Taddy Hall conducted a study on 2006 entitled “What customers want from your products?” The article indicates that the fundamental unit of analysis for a marketer who hopes to develop products that customers will buy is to find the job that the product gives. An example of this is a fast-food restaurant that tried to improve its sales of milk shakes. First, the researcher tried to identify what the customers want from their milkshakes and applied it, but it did not have an impact on their sales. A new researcher came next and introduced a new method in which the researcher identified the purpose of the product on why customers buy it and after knowing the results; they improved the areas in which the job of a milk shake was emphasized. After applying the new improvements, the fast-food restaurant matched up to its direct and indirect competitors. This example shows that job-defined markets are much larger than product category-defined markets. To improve a product, it does not equate to understand the customer, but comes from understanding the job that the product does to its customers.
Nor Balkish Zakaria, Rahimah Mohamed Yunos, Che Fraridah Che Mahmood, Rizqa Anita and Jamaliah Said conducted a study on 2017, entitled “The effect of consumers’ interest, information access and spending willingness on Halal products trustworthiness.” The study focuses on the effect of consumer’s interest, information access and spending willingness towards the trustworthiness of Muslims on Halal products. This study was conceptualized because of the issue that comes from the trust of Muslim consumers to the certification process itself as many fake Halal logo certifications were out in the market. Based on a survey of 167 Malaysian Muslim respondents, the results of this study reveal that only the interest and spending willingness of a Muslim consumer is significant with the trustworthiness to the Halal Products. In addition, the level of education is significant in determining the trustworthiness that Muslims have to Halal products. The trustworthiness is important because of the
Shariah Law that the Muslims follow. The research design used in the study was correlational design. It examines the effect of consumers’ interest, information access and willingness towards the Halal products trustworthiness. A close-ended questionnaire was used to conduct the study. The data analysis employed in the study was exploratory analysis.
Measurement of Interest Level
In the book of Data Levels of Measurement by Statistic Solutions (2018), it was stated that one of the important things that a researcher must know and understand is the use of different levels of measurement. The article discussed the four different types of measurement level. These are Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio. The first type of level of measurement is the Nominal Level of Measurement. The words, numbers, letters, alphanumeric symbols etc. are used to classify the data presented in the research. Second, the Ordinal Level of Measurement. In this type, the ordered relationship within the variables is recognized. Third is the Interval Level of Measurement, which does not only categorize the orders of the variables but also considers the distance between each interval. Lastly, the Ratio Level of Measurement, the variables in this type of measurement can have a value of zero. In addition, there is an equal distance between the points on the scale in the division. With the levels of measurements, the researchers will be able to determine the statistical analysis that will be used in the research.
From the book entitled The Use of Intent Scale Transactions to Predict Purchase Interest by Eric Risen and Larry Risen (2018), stressed that researchers can use methods to predict and know if a product can get the interest of the target market. One of these is call Intent scale transactions. This method is used to predict purchase interest of a product by gathering data from customer survey on purchase intentions and converting it into prediction of purchase probability wherein a researcher can rely on, to forecast the probability that a consumer will purchase the preferred product. Two methods can be used in intent scale transaction. First is 5-point scale or Likert scale that is used to understand consumers’ intention to buy a product by conducting basic surveys to come up with Intent Probability to be compared with Predicted Purchase Intent that can be obtained by doing a follow-up research to measure the actual purchase behavior of the consumer. Second is 11-point scale or Juster scale, which is a more accurate version of 5-point scale because every description correlates directly to a number ranking 0 to 10. Also, 11-point scale was done by pre-interviewing respondents to get the percentage of purchase probability and after a month the respondents who had taken the interview will be interviewed again to know how many percent of the respondents who was interviewed last month that buys the product to be able to estimate the actual purchase intent.
To sum it up, the articles and studies in the related literature and study were about the definition of gender, different scent that sets the mood of a woman and their attraction to the fragrance based on their personality, interest of women on environmental fragrances, spicy musk as preferred scent of heterosexual men, factors that affects people’s choice in buying a perfume such as image, brand, price, packaging, quality promotional activities, recommendations and impulse buying, different factors that attracts the interest of the consumers on a product and the comparison between men and women’s buying behavior to show how gender affects the interest level in buying a product. These articles will then help this study to identify at which factors can get the interest of consumers on a certain product and will also eventually help in operating the business. Also, there are two books that will help the proponents on measuring the interest level of a consumer. The first book shows four different types of levels of measurement while the second book shows the methods to predict and know if a product can get the interest of the target market and named one, the intent scale transactions.