Heidi impaired. The kidneys regulate their own blood
Heidi L. Rands HCA/240 Pamela S. Williams RN, MSN October 13, 2011 Axia College Material Appendix D Read each scenario and write a 25- to 50-word answer for each question following the scenarios. Use at least one reference per scenario and format your sources consistent with APA guidelines. Scenario A Acute renal failure: Ms. Jones, a 68-year-old female, underwent open-heart surgery to replace several blocked vessels in her heart.
On her first day postoperatively, it was noted that she had very little urine output. 1. What is happening to Ms.Jones’s kidneys, and why is it causing the observed symptom? * * Ms. Jones’ kidneys are impaired. The kidneys regulate their own blood flow as well as GFR.
The reason it is causing the observed systems is because the kidneys became hypoperfused which narrows the renal arteries, and vessels in the kidneys dilate with the help of prostaglandins to facilitate the flow. * 2. What other symptoms and signs might occur? * * Some of the other symptoms and signs that may occur would be that she may experience * hypertension, skin irritation, muscular cramps, and swelling around the eyes, hands and feet. . What is causing Ms. Jones’s kidney disease? * * Ms.
Jones is having a decrease of blood flow from the kidney to the heart and brain leading to acute renal failure. She is suffering from preferential renal vasoconstriction. This was caused from the progression of the heart operation.
* 4. What are possible treatment options, and what is the prognosis? * * Some of the possible treatments that Ms. Jones may undergo include, fluid resuscitation, medication and in some extreme cases, dialysis or hemofiltration may be required.Acute renal failure can usually be reversed, but can also cause permanent loss of kidney function leading to chronic kidney disease.
Scenario B Chronic renal failure: Mr. Hodges, a 73-year-old man, has had congestive heart failure for the past 5 years. His doctor has told him that his heart is not functioning well, needing more and more medicine to maintain circulatory function. He has noticed that he is not urinating more than once a day. 5. Why is the condition of Mr.
Hodges’s kidneys affecting the rest of his body? * * Mr.Hodge’s already has Chronic Renal Failure, added volume of retention because of vascular disease, affects the heart and kidneys. His body is no longer able to eliminate the metabolic toxic wastes his body is producing as the byproducts of the metabolic processes occurring in every cell of his body. * 6.
As his chronic renal failure worsens, what other symptoms and signs might occur in his respiratory, digestive, nervous, and urinary systems? * * Mr. Hodges may experience symptoms such as yellowness under the skin, water retention, and hypertension as well as skin irritation.He may also develop pulmonary edema or become dyspneic.
Mr. Hodges has chances of suffering from poor urine output, GI bleeds, liver disease, and even seizures. * 7. What is causing Mr. Hodges’s kidney disease? * * When the amount of these metabolic wastes accumulates in the system, they begin to poison every cell in the body.
This is how it affects the functions of the other organs in the different systems of the body. So as long as Mr. Hodges does not improve his urine output, he will deteriorate even if he is bombarded with drugs.Worse yet, the drugs will also aggravate his condition because their metabolites will also become additional poisons into his system. * 8. What are possible treatment options, and what is the prognosis? Some treatment options would be to control blood pressure to delay further kidney damage.
Keep blood pressure at or below 130/80 mmHg. Do not smoke, eat meals that are low fat and cholesterol and keep blood sugar under control. The prognosis would be that he may need treatment in the form of dialysis or kidney transplant. References www. livestrong.
com www. mayoclinic. com