Analyzing average (Lundbeck Institute, 2009. The causal factors

Analyzing average (Lundbeck Institute, 2009. The causal factors

Analyzing Biopsychological Disorders Bonnie Montgomery Analyzing Biopsychological Disorders Part A Biopsychology is a biological approach to psychology. Historically, researchers believed that neuropsychological disorders were of the brain, and psychological disorders were of the mind. Now, psychologists understand that these distinctions do not exist. Biological approaches to psychological disorders direct psychologists to consider the active cause and effective treatments of major psychological disorders. These major psychological disorders include schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, and Tourette syndrome (Pinel, 2009.

Schizophrenia is an arduous psychiatric disease. This disease is difficult to treat, and endure. The symptoms of schizophrenia include problems paying attention, disordered cognitive processes, general lack of emotional response, catatonic behavior, delusions, and hallucinations (Eisenburg & Berman, 2010.

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) Symptoms may vary depending on the different types of schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenics usually experience anxiety, and anger. A subject that is affected by paranoid schizophrenia often believes that someone or something is trying to harm them or their loved ones.Disorganized schizophrenia usually affects thought processes, and people who are affected often behave in a child-like manner.

A subject with catatonic schizophrenia may not move, interact with others, or he or she may experience a constant state of unrest. Undifferentiated types may exhibit several symptoms from each type (Pub Med Health, 2010. ) Schizophrenia is implicated in several areas of the brain. These areas include the forebrain, hindbrain, and the limbic system.

Schizophrenia is theorized to be caused by a disruption of the functional circuits of the brain.Although, researchers are unsure about the particular areas of brain involved the hippocampus, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and amygdala may be included in the particular circuits. A subject with schizophrenia may have several structural changes in his or her brain. These changes usually occur in the forebrain and include a lessening of grey matter in the frontal lobe, and a decrease in brain activity. Also, patients with schizophrenic disorder may have larger than normal basal nuclei, and ventricles. The amygdala and hippocampus are usually smaller than average (Lundbeck Institute, 2009. The causal factors of schizophrenia include genetics, birth complications, early infections, traumatic injury, autoimmune reactions, and stress (Pinel, 2009.

) Research also indicates that there may be a specific chromosomal vulnerability in schizophrenia because four out of the nine genes that involve synapse and neurotransmission are located within chromosome six. Many genetic susceptibility elements contribute a small increase in the risk of schizophrenia (Chu & Liu, 2010. ) The dopamine theory suggests that a person who is affected by schizophrenia may have an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine.The excessive amount of dopamine may be explained by an abnormality in the brain processes that causes over-production, or problems eliminating dopamine from the body.

However, recent research suggests that other neurotransmitters such as serotonin, glutamate, and GABA may be implicated in schizophrenia. The use of the drug clozapine was the most common drug in the treatment of schizophrenia. Clozapine affects receptors that are not primarily D2 receptors. The effects that this drug has exhibited on patients with schizophrenia indicate that other receptors may be responsible.Also, many neuroleptics block D2 receptors within hours, but full treatment effects are not obtained for several weeks.

This indicates that other receptors must be affected to treat schizophrenia (Pinel, 2009. ) The treatment of schizophrenic patients includes the use of antipsychotic medications. In 2008, The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) trial discovered interesting information about the use of atypical antipsychotics over the use of conventional drugs. The CATIE trial indicates that the drug olanzapine offers more long-term effectiveness than more conventional antipsychotic drugs.The drugs risperidone, quetiapine, clozapine, and ziprasidone also displayed a longer treatment window than conventional antipsychotics.

These drugs are in a class known as atypical antipsychotics. The exact mechanism of these drugs are unknown, but atypical antipsychotics bind to alpha-1, dopamine, histamine H-1, and serotonin type two receptors. The side effects of atypical antipsychotics include akathisia, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, insomnia, dry mouth, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, and weight gain (Chen, McCombs, & Jinhee, 2008. ) Part BAnxiety disorder is a chronic fear related disorder. In case two, Tom is affected by daily anxiety that affects his daily life.

This subject has a seemly average family life, and a stable career. He is affected by hypochondria, and he fears problems with money and career responsibilities. Hypochondria is the preoccupation of fear of illnesses that are imagined by the patient. Hypochondria may fall under the obsessive compulsive type of anxiety, or it may be included in generalized anxiety depending on the severity and symptoms. Tom seems to be affected by generalized anxiety disorder.

The indication of a happy and stable home life seems to distinguish Tom’s anxiety through the lack of precipating stimulus. The information provided about Tom’s symptoms also indicates that Tom is experiencing a panic disorder (Pinel, 2009. ) Current research states that anxiety disorder may be caused by deficits in serotonin and GABAergic transmissions. A link between anxiety disorders and an imbalance in certain neurotransmitters may be present. The neurotransmitters that regulate anxiety such as noradrenaline, serotonin and Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may contribute to anxiety disorders.The areas of the brain that are affected by anxiety disorder are the forebrain, limbic system, locus coeruleus, dorsal, hippocampus, and the amygdala. The forebrain is the most affected area of the brain in subjects with anxiety disorder.

The limbic system is thought to affect the central role of processing anxiety-related information. Also, people with obsessive compulsive disorder often show increased brain activity within the basal nuclei (Lundbeck Institute, 2008. ) The discovery that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can effectively treat anxiety disorders has led to the Serotonin Theory.The Serotonin theory indicates that serotonin mediated neurotransmitters in the brain may be involved in anxiety disorders.

The fact that some antidepressant agents relieve symptoms of both anxiety and depression disorders indicate that there may be a correlation between the two disorders. Information also indicates a correlation between genetic susceptibility in depression and anxiety disorders (Lundbeck Institute, 2008. ) The side effects of antidepressants include nausea, insomnia, anxiety, decreased sex drive, sweating, tremors, diarrhea, fatigue, and headache.Although, there are positive aspects of antidepressants. This drug class can drastically reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression. This may allow a subject to live a more normal life.

Case four involves Mary. Mary has classic symptoms of insomnia. Her case indicates that Mary does not use recreational drug or alcohol. The most common causes of primary insomnia include alcohol, anxiety, stress, and caffeine use. Secondary insomnia is caused by a medical condition. Depression is the most common cause of secondary insomnia.The symptoms of insomnia includes difficulty falling asleep, feeling tired during waking hours or falling asleep during the day, waking up several times during sleep, and a feeling of tiredness at waking.

Insomnia is a sleep disorder (Pub Med Health, 2009. ) Medications can be helpful to treat insomnia if used on a short-term basis. Hypnotic medications are often prescribed to alleviate the symptoms of insomnia. Non-benzodiazepines reduce the symptoms of insomnia with fewer side effects than benzodiazepines.The side effects of these medications include drowsiness, dizziness, diarrhea, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue, and headache (Pub Med Health, 2009. ) Biopsychology may be used to effectively research psychological problems.

The study of the brain and biological factors that affect psychological disorders will create more effective treatments and medications for mental disease. The understanding of the brain and nervous system has led to many new discoveries in the past two decades. Biopsychology creates results by using multiple levels on analysis, multiple species, and the comparison of the two.Biopsychology offers a convergence of studies which allows a psychologist to research on a more specific plane. Psychology can be limited in human subjects because of the brain manipulation that is involved. However, biopsychology and the other branches of psychology work together to create a defense against the combined weaknesses.

Biopsychology has the ability to study a large variety of species including humans. Researchers suggest that the correlations of behaviors between animals and humans may explain many behaviors dealing with the nature versus nurture issue. References Chen, L.

, McCombs, J. S. , & Jinhee, P. 2008).

Duration of Antipsychotic Drug Therapy in Real-World Practice: A Comparison with CATIE Trial Results. Value in Health (Wiley-Blackwell), 11(3), 487-496. doi:10. 1111/j.

1524-4733. 2007. 00262. x Chu, T.

, & Liu, Y. (2010). An integrated genomic analysis of gene-function correlation on schizophrenia susceptibility genes.

Journal Of Human Genetics, 55(5), 285-292. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Eisenberg, D. , & Berman, K.

(2010). Executive function, neural circuitry, and genetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication Of The American College Of Neuropsychopharmacology, 35(1), 258-277.Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Lundbeck Institute.

(2008). Focus on Brain Disorders – Anxiety. Retrieved from http://www.

brainexplorer. org/anxiety/Anxiety_Aetiology. shtml Lundbeck Institute.

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brainexplorer. org/schizophrenia/Schizophrenia_Aetiology. shtml Pub Med Health. (2010, February). Schizophrenia.

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gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001925/ Pub Med Heath. (2009). Insomnia. Retrieved from http://www.

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