According to the Intercensal Demographic Survey
According to the Intercensal Demographic Survey, 8.07 million people in the country are aged 15 and above and 60 percent of that population is economically active.
The economically active population is the aggregate number of persons available for the production of goods and services and it included paid employees, employers, unpaid family workers, own account workers and those unemployed. Those above the age of 15 but are not in the economically active bracket include students, homemakers, the retired, those who are sick as well as senior citizens.
According to the survey, the largest proportions of economically active persons are in the age range 20-44 years for both males and females
“The proportion of those in the labour force who are unemployed is about 7 (6.62) percent, while 93 percent are unemployed. Out of those who are employed, the highest proportion (52 percent) is engaged in agriculture-related occupations, followed by the “paid employee” category (23 percent)”, said Zimstats in the survey findings.
Unemployment statistics have always been controversial in the country with some circles pegging the unemployment rate to be as 90 percent, although some argue that the figure only looks at the formal sector. However, Zimstats’ methodology apparently includes those in the informal sector and communal agriculture as employed, resulting in employment levels being high.
According to Zimstats’ methodology, persons who stated ‘paid employee’, ’employer’, ‘own account worker agriculture’, ‘own account worker other’ and ‘unpaid family worker’ as their main activity were regarded as employed
The survey says that more males than females are in all categories of employment with the exception of “own account worker agriculture” where there are more females than males.
Among the economically active, males are 52 percent with women constituting 48 percent. Interestingly, within the unemployed category there are more males (64 percent) than females (36 percent), according to the survey. There is almost equal proportions between males and females in the employed category, at 51 percent and 49 percent, respectively
“The highest proportion of employed persons have their occupations in agriculture (63 percent) followed by those employed in the ‘services sector’ at 11 percent. Males are dominating in all occupations except for only four categories namely; Life Sciences Professionals, Administration, Services and, Agriculture.
“There is almost a total male domination in the following sectors; Transport (98 percent males), Mechanics (96 percent), Mining and Construction (93 percent) and Engineers &Technicians (92 percent). Seventy-five percent of persons with a disability are employed in the agricultural occupations”, says the survey.
Meanwhile, the survey also established that the country’s literacy rate stood at 94 percent in 2017, making it one of the highest in the continent. It was also established that 48 percent of the population aged 3 years and above has completed secondary and above level of education; 43 percent of females said to have completed primary education than 41 percent males.
There were 3,255,463 private households in the country in 2017. The population is also said to have increased to 13,572,560 persons from 13,061,239 in 2012, meaning that some 511,321 persons have been added to the population over the past five years.
The Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions has always describe the government driven unemployment statistics as misleading and unreliable.