1.1.1) Piaget proposed the theory of learning through four stages of cognitive development which reflected on the increasing sophistication of childrens thought ( McLeod , S.A ,2015) .He also suggested that the theory involved the 3 processes such as assimilation, accommodation and equilibration ( Luneta, 2013: 30) . Bruner on the other hand suggests that the theory of learning does not only include the concepts and problem- solving procedures invented previously by the culture, but also the ability to “invent” these things for oneself. This theory involves three modes of representations namely enactive, iconic and symbolic ( McLeod , S.A , 2008) .
1.1.2) Bruner outcome of cognitive development is thinking. The intelligent mind creates from experience “generic coding systems that permit one to go beyond the data to new and possibly fruitful predictions ” ( Bruner , 1957: 234). Whereas Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development focusses on how learners interact with their environment to develop complex reasoning and knowledge.
Nature is ones genes such as the different types of characteristics a child develops / inherits from their parents. Nature is therefore responsible for the biological influences in a child’s development such as appearance, talents, abilities and also certain illness. It is also responsible for the growth of a person from the fetus level until development into a normal adult ( Groark , McCarthy & Kirk , 2014) .Nurture is what a child has been taught or what they learnt from people around them such as manners like please and thank you Nurture influences children’s development through many ways: physically through nutrition, activity, and stress; intellectually through informal experiences and formal instruction; and socially through adult role models and peer relationships. With good environmental support, children thrive. Unfortunately, the conditions of nurture are not always nurturing. For example, children who grow up in a cruel and violent family must look outside the family for love and care ( McDevitt, Ormrud,2007: 6-8). Guidance from parents and teachers plays a very important role in childrens lives. Teachers promote self determination which allows students to have confidence in themselves and strive towards their goals and succeed in their lives. Teachers who are able to inspire, support and provide appropriate care for their students certainly cause a great impact in their lives. A teacher not only has the ability to provide knowledge, but also guide children how to ask the right questions and develop skills needed to succeed in life (2016). Whereas a parent’s role is not only to be kept to the academic and educational achievements of a child, but also in the development of inner personality and character of a child. Their influence will be very high with regards to the entire development of children. Starting from relations to education, everything starts in the home itself and parents play an important role in developing many qualities of a child. A parent’s abilities, aspirations, habits, behaviour etc. are some of the factors which contribute to success or failure of child (2013). Through their culture children learn and realize which behaviours and temperaments are allowed, discouraged and forbidden. Traditions, religion, food and even the manner in which a particular culture dresses influences child development. According to various researches it suggests that cultural socialization within families helps to develop high self-esteem, racial and ethnic pride (Groark, McCarthy, ; Kirk, 2014, ch.2.3). It is therefore important for educators and parents to educate their children to understand how culture shapes child development in order to improve the lives of children in a way that respects their cultural backgrounds (2012).


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