Metaphysical poetry brought whole new forms of diction and imagery dealing with psychological, physical and spiritual subjects of that time. Grierson argues that “Metaphysical is a poetry which has been magnificent by a philosophical origination of the universe and the role determined to the human spirit in the great drama of reality” (1921). According to Oxford Dictionary: “A group of 17th-century poets, who work is characterized by the use of complex and elaborate images or conceits, typically using an intellectual form of argumentation to express emotional states. Members of the group include John Donne, George Herbert, Henry Vaughan, and Andrew Marvell.” (Muhammad, 2014). Metaphysical poetry deals with the whole experience of man and mankind, but the, understanding, learning and solemnity of the poets means that the poetry is concentrated on the intense areas of occurrences, especially on love, romance, and passion. Metaphysical poets brought a new convention in the history of poetry as they are working on different themes which provide a contrast between imagery and the realistic cunning theme. John Donne, Andrew Marvel, George Herbert, Richard Crashaw were the most prominent who significantly gave their best to this new poetic field. (Sarkar, 2012).
“Love in poetry can be established in various forms as Dante’s love for Beatrice was ideal and Refinement, Petrarch’s for Laura was ornamented one, Sidney’s for his Stella was sort of a Gracious a trinket, Ronsard’s love was hedonist and sensuous, Keats’ love for Fanny Brawne Was modest, but Donne’s love was quite different from that of his predecessors or even inheritors. His love is intense, rude, sadist, cynical and sometimes fanciful or not allegiant”. (Ahmed, 2013). Donne is one of the most controversial poets in the history of English literature, Donne is best known for his metaphysical poetry on the themes as multiple intimacy, adultery, and religion. Sharma explained, “Donne defines love as the combination of body and soul i.e. a mixture of both spiritual and psychological” (2014). In 2016, a study said, “Donne’s love poetry presents a surprising collection of mood and behavior to the feelings of a lover. Donne’s love poetry is quite marvelous for being frankly sensual and passionate at the same time” (Chaudhary). For Donne gender matters, deeply, passionately, disturbingly. Donne is constantly writing about women and gender roles, both openly and in a roundabout way through equivalence and metaphor. As for the critics on the modern period, they said that the representation of women in Donne’s poetry is an obscure figure and the reflection of a man’s desire. For them, Donne can be termed as misogynists who use women for his own advantage or a wit willing who say anything for the sake of the poem. (Mambrol, 2017).
By his magnificent poems, Donne helped the readers to taste the metaphysical flavor of his poetic expressions. In his major love poetry like The Sun Rising, The Canonization, Women’s Constancy, The Good Morrow, The Anniversary, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, The Ecstasy, The Confined Love, Lovers’ Infiniteness, The Flea, The Indifferent, The Undertaking, The Relic, The Apparition, Love’s Growth, The Dream, The Triple Fool, Song: Go And Catch A Falling Star etc., Donne critically sketched women’s love to differentiate it from the conservative concept of love given by others. (Sarkar,2012)
As the title of this study suggests this paper claims that Donne’s metaphysical love poetry takes a unique position in the history of literature. Hence this study aims at revealing and highlighting the treatment and characteristics of Donne’s love poetry. However, the focus will be on Donne’s metaphysical love poetry in which he criticizes women love. That is why the study will start with defining what metaphysical poetry is and what is the concept of Donne regarding women love. This preface will be followed by the main analysis. In order to prove the main argument of the treatment of female love and denunciation of women love of John Donne’s sensual and highly metaphysical poems The Confined love, Go and Catch a Falling Star, Women Constancy is chosen to be examined as a representative example.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this research are:
This study intends to find out Donne’s treatment of female love.
To investigate different aspects of denunciation of female love in Donne’s poetry.
1.4 Research Question
How has John Donne treated female love in his poems?
What are the different aspects of denunciation of female love in Donne’s poetry?
This study will provide an in-depth aspect of denunciation of female love from Donne’s poetry. Further, it will provide a detailed study of the theme of treatment of female by Donne and denunciation of female love in different aspects. This research will be helpful in the work of other researchers to examine further aspects of female love and to explore more into the metaphysical genre in poetry.
Due to limited resources and less time, this research may not be able to explore many aspects of denunciation of female love in Donne’s poetry.
1.7 Definition of Key Terms
Metaphysics: “a division of philosophy that is concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being or study of what is outside objective experience” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 1828).
Metaphysical poetry: It is defined as “highly intellectualized poetry marked by bold and ingenious conceits, incongruous imagery, complexity and subtlety of thought, frequent use of paradox, and often by deliberate harshness or rigidity of expression” (Merriam Webster Dictionary, 1828).
Love: According to Oxford Dictionary (1801), an intense feeling of deep affection.
Denunciation: the act of accusing someone in public of something bad (Cambridge Dictionary, 2017).
Treatment: the act or manner or an instance of treating someone or something (Merriam Webster Dictionary, 1828).
(SECTION 2) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
2.1 Research Design
This study is based on Secondary Research type and will apply qualitative research design, which is defined as, “an interpretive naturalistic approach to the world. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them” (Denzin and Lincoln, 2005, p.3). As it is conducted in a time span of 6 months, therefore it is a cross-sectional study. Further, applying the exploratory research method, “this research design is chosen to gain background information and to define the terms of the research problem. This is used to clarify research problems and hypotheses and to establish research priorities”(SMstudy, 2016). Similarly, this study will further unfold the treatment of female love and different aspects of denunciation of female love in Donne’s poetry.
2.2 Research Procedure
To highlight the treatment of female love through Donne’s poetry and to find out different aspects of denunciation of female love will be presented through in-depth analytical approach. Furthermore, this data will be analyzed by utilizing the procedure of thematic analysis.
2.3 Plan Analysis
This research will have consisted of the following sections:
Section 1: Introduction to Metaphysical Poetry of John Donne
Section 2: Highlight the treatment of female love
Section 3: Critically analyze the aspects of denunciation of female love